half the paper has been completed! total is 10-12 pages, so 5 pages has been completed. intro is there so we just need to add to the body and conclusion and make it flow. please see attachments for brainstorm ideas, outline for essay and details.


Throughout this theory the idea of visual experience plays a key role; this may involve visual illusions, such as which line is longer in a Müller-Lyre illusion (Brewer & Lambert, 2001. P.3), even once the lines are measured, one still appears to be more elongated than the other.  This illustrates that although we rely on our perceptions they are not always correct, this can also be explained within the old woman/ young lady illusion, in which individuals who looked at the image were able to see both portrayals, as well as individual ones (3).  In a state science, where in one can see two objects at once, a completely new object should be classified (3).  Through perception and observation scientists feel what they are scrutinizing must be verified through their visualization, however; it does not incontrovertibly verify that their perceptions are true; it must be tested in order for it to be in accordance with the facts.

Scientists seek to avoid any type of observation that may need to include the adjusting of theories, by ignoring data, or reinterpreting data we are able to envision a clear view of theory-ladenness of observation (6).  This can be seen through the example of participants asked to evaluate passages that supported different theories, those who read passages that supported their theories were more consistent than those who did not (7).  From this we can postulate that if an individual feels their thoughts are validated through evidence, it is easier to prove a hypothesis or thought.  Theory-ladenness of observation can cause problems simply because it relies solely on observation or what one may have learned, it is perplexing to document, which is what leads to lack of information or scientists leaving out any important data (7).   An individual’s insight may be affecting their observations, but it is still maintained to be an accurate and acceptable form of research, although it may impacted by what the scientist has previously viewed or studied in their life, information may start to sway and will not be as valid as it can be (8).

“Parapsychology is the field of human inquiry, which deal with phenomena that mainstream science, does not want to” (Adzinikolov, 2005. P.1).  It has been regarded as a ‘pseudoscience’, meaning some might not believe to be as factual as other types of science, because there is a lack data to prove the research some feel that it is not valid (1).  There is also conflict within parapsychology, which copes with the idea of religion, and spirituality becoming one within science, in this aspect it is believe that each should stay in their separate cages.  Although, religion was once the most dominant source of verity, through oppression from religious leaders, financial resources and prosperity emerged to from the ‘Bourgeoisie’, and science surfaced as the new ruler of fact (2).  In today’s society, parapsychology is deemed a hollow science, with a lack funding, and unable to be proven based on difficult, already established, scholastic rules (2).  In the science world, engaging in this type of science can be seen as perilous adventure, as it can cause jeering, harassment, and most terrifying, termination (2).

In trying to find one impartial way to analyze science, there are countless ways to examine each way.  A human’s intellectual capacity is rooted in achievement and gratification, which only increases one’s self-centeredness (6).  We are moving towards nothing, without accepting nature and spirit as a valid form of science, there is even a struggle between which types of parapsychology are more valid then other (6).  The idea is the merge both ideas into one science, in doing so we can apply more rigorous testing and rules on all facets of actuality, so that they do not get refuted or deemed abnormal (7).  By doing this we can establish a stronger bond within each ‘type’ of science, we will be able to conform to the norms of rigid science, and also be pushed in newer directions and forced to discover different realizations.

In order to discuss ESP and telekinesis we must first establish the five senses’ sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch; these are the physical senses.  Next, there must be some sort of physical capability, which is present in everyone in varying levels (Brownstein, 2010. P.1).  Next are our emotions (1), this can how we cope with our sentiments, or how we experience them.  Our beliefs impact what we are because they are things we have seen or have learnt, that are not necessarily proven (1) – they are apart of our ideals.  And lastly there is reason, within this is our rational notion (1), things we have learnt through fact, for example ‘ovens are hot’.  There is also an aspect of ‘the flow of existence’ (2), this signifies that through different points in time there is some sort of fluidity from one to the other, for example when one moment in time becomes the past and the next is the future.  There is also a ‘now essence’ (2), in which we see an instant occurring, and you are able to analyze and use scholarly thoughts to establish the goings on.

Telepathy is the capacity to handle and assess an individual’s sentiments or sensation (3).  This involves the ‘aura’ someone possesses, this is the atmosphere that may surround, and be generated by a person, the stronger someone feelings are the more easily it can be noticed by someone who is telepathic (3).  An aura is always able to found, it does not vacate a person while they rest, a person is always emoting, and therefore one can always sense their passion.  One can imagine this as a dog that might smell someone in order to track them, and sense what they are (3), so can someone who has telepathic powers.  There are diminutive amounts of people who are born with the ability to be aware and sense others aura (3).    The majorities of people are born with an inactive ‘sensing ability’, and may not be aware that they possess it (3).  Those who do not fully possess the power are able to refine the skill, are called individuals who are developing their sensing ability, and become fully functioning (3).  They must want to become better within their sensing abilities, and will take quite some time in order for it to be fully developed, and only verified by doing it correctly (3).

There are a couple of ways in which one can test for parapsychological skills, an example of which is a Ganzfeld experiment (Wooffitt et al., 2010. P.3), in which an individual cannot see and is listening to white noise through headphones, in order to make their skills more refined, as there are less distractions.  The main focus of these tests are to fathom what types of occurrences are happening within the head of the person in question, they seek to identify the machinery of the brain (3).  The types of people who are telepathic are very sensitive in their interpersonal communication, through the use of construction they are able to sense the earth around them on which they stand (11).    We are able to prove if their sense are verifiable, based on if they an identify which thoughts are the decoy (11), by doing this it easy to see how one examines the personal and non-verbal cues in order to gain more information.  However, not being able to identify these inaccuracies does not negate that these individuals have special abilities; they are merely encountering a mind block.  Among scientists ganzfeld experiments are the most trusted kind of test, they are seen as more valid than any other kind (11), they are consistent and reveal more fact than fallacy.  It does make an analysts job more difficult (11), simply because must learn to identify where the experiment may fail and pinpoint where the phenomenon’s are abundant.



Adzinikolov, T. (2005). Why Parapsychology is one of the most important sciences?. Journal of Religion & Psychical Research, 28(3), 143-153. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Basu, P. K. (2003). Theory-ladenness of evidence: a case study from history of chemistry. Studies in History & Philosophy of Science Part A, 34(2), 351. doi:10.1016/S0039-3681(03)00022-0

Brewer, W. F., & Lambert, B. L. (2001). The Theory-Ladenness of Observation and the Theory-Ladenness of the Rest of the Scientific Process. Philosophy of Science, 68(3), Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Brownstein, D. (2010). On the Physical Basis of ESP and Telepathy. Journal of Spirituality & Paranormal Studies, 33(1), 14-24. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Fjelland, R. (1991). The theory-ladenness of observations, the role of scientific instruments, and the Kantian a priori. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 5(3), 269-280. doi:10.1080/02698599108573399

Honderich, Ted (ed.). The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (Second Edition) (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005)

Morris, R. L. (2000). PARAPSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY. Journal of Parapsychology, 64(2), 123. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Wooffitt, R., Holt, N., & Allistone, S. (2010). Introspection as Institutional Practice: Reflections on the Attempt to Capture Conscious Experience in a Parapsychology Experiment. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 7(1), 5-20. doi:10.1080/14780880903304568



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