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Philosophy

Answer following questions with at least 3 sentences.

1. Discuss Hume’s arguments against reason as the basis of morality?
2. What is the role of reason in moral deliberations?
3. Can Hume be defended against the charge of moral relativism if he bases morality on sentiment?
4. What is the principal of utility? Why does Mill feel called on to defend the doctrine in such detail?
5. What is Mill’s reply to the objection that the greatest happiness principle is a swinish doctrine?
6. Why does Mill distinguish different kinds of pleasure? What criterion does he set up to judge differences in the quality of pleasures?
7. In what ways does Kants ethical theory discourage us from morally judging actions simply by the actual consequences that they have in the world? In what ways does his view insist that when we judge an action, we take into account the intentions with which it is preformed?
8. Account for Kants denial of the unqualified goodness of such commonly valued assets as friendship, health, wealth, and the like in terms of his interest in that which is good in itself. What does he regard as the only moral quality that is unqualifiedly good in itself?
9. What is the moral function of reason in Kants philosophy? What is the relationship between reason and happiness?
10. Explain the relationship between good will and duty in Kants ethics. Can you think of any alternative ways of relating them?
11. Why does Kant object to using inclinations or feelings as the basis of morality?
12. What criteria of the morality of actions does Kant establish? How would he evaluate an act of charity preformed out of a natural sympathy for the sufferings of the poor?
13. State the categorical imperative in any of the forms Kant gives it, and use examples of moral acts to clarify its meaning. What is the basis of the moral law in kants system of ethics?
14. What is the role of motives in Kants ethical theory?
15. What would Kant position be as to moral values in the following situations? (a) A husband remains loyal to his wife because he loves her. (b) A husband recognizes loyalty to his wife as an obligation, although he finds to decidedly unpleasant.
16. According to Bentham and Mill, the moral value of an action depends solely on the happiness produced by it. Why and in what ways does Kant disagree with this view?

 

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