Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement related to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It is an agreement in which the industrial countries are legally bounded to reduce their collective emission of greenhouse gases by 5.2% compared to the year 1990.


The major accomplishment of Kyoto Protocol is to bring awareness to the fact that there is need to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions and protect our environment. Even if the goals of the Protocol are not met, it will have a great starting point. Many nations have followed through on their agreement and cut greenhouse gas emission.

The Protocol is helping the world to work together to protect our planet, much like the world banded together to remedy the Ozone Hole calamity. It shows that many countries are serious about environmental protection and show others that they need to be focus on what’s really important: the protection of Earth.



The purpose of Copenhagen Climate Council was to present innovative yet achievable solutions to climate change as well as to assess what is required to make a new global treaty effective. The Council promoted constructive dialogue between governments and businesses, so that when world’s political leaders and negotiators meet in Copenhagen, they could have the best arguments for establishing a treaty that can be supported by global businesses.

By promoting this idea, the Copenhagen Climate Council demonstrated that achieving an effective global climate treaty in not only possible, but necessary.  The strategy was built upon creating international awareness of importance of Climate summit, promoting constructive dialogue among government, businesses, and science and inspiring global business leaders.


The first achievement from the Copenhagen Accord was that the leaders of all the major economies, including the US and China were committed to and involved in the process.  For the firs time, the leaders of the major greenhouse emission nations have accepted the majority scientific view that the increase in global temperature should be less than two degree Celsius compared to the industrial levels. The second achievement was that that developed countries have committed to providing US $100 billion dollars by 2020 to address the needs of developing countries. And the third achievement in terms of business perspective was that the international business community was more than ever engaged with the climate change process. Copenhagen Conference seemed more like a meeting of the World Economics Forum that a UN meeting.




There were four main themes on the table of COP 16 which was the official name of Cancun Mexico conference official name: developing ways to adapt to changing climate and weather patterns; transferring knowledge and green technologies to help poorer nations adapt; increasing regulation to prevent tropical deforestation; and creating a plan for how all of this will be financed.


What to do with the Kyoto Protocol, expiring in 2012, was the source of the most contention during the summit. Although the Cancun Agreement dodged the question of Kyoto, there were some significant achievements of note.  It formally commits the parties of the UNFCCC to ensuring that climate change does note exceed 2 degrees of warming over this century.  On agreements to reduce emissions, the Cancun agreement organized the voluntary agreement to reduce emission targets agreed to by signatories of the Copenhagen Accord. This was a huge milestone, because it was the first time that all major economies had pledged explicit actions in a UNFCCC document since its creation in 1992. It also made significant steps on a climate financing mechanism for adaptation and justification by developing countries.  It delegates to the Word Bank the responsibility for creating a “Green Climate Fund” that would mobilize the pledged funding of $100 billion a year in public and private financing promised by 2020.


A United Nations conference on climate change in Durban, South Africa, concluded with an agreement to extend Kyoto Protocol for five years, ahead of a new global accord to be developed in the following years and take effect in 2020.


The first accomplishment from 17th conference of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was to work toward a new global treaty in coming years and the establishment of a new climate fund. Another accomplishment was the big three China, the US and India agree to cut their carbon emissions.





The importance of this Protocol is to set target for 37 industrialized countries and European community for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The first conference was held in 1972 in Stockholm in which it was focused to have an international cooperation about the Earth’s environment change.  Twenty years later, the next Conference was held under UN supervision in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro in which it was focused on the participant countries to reduce their GHG emission specifically the developed countries. In spite of all these efforts, the overall greenhouse gas emission for 40 countries was reduced by five percent from 1995 to 2005. But total emissions for all other developed countries have risen by 10 percent. Only few countries such as France, Germany, and the UK were able to meet the targets. Among the developed countries the United States alone increased its emission by 16 percent and stands about the third of all the global emission. China and India have also increased their emission substantially. According to an estimate the overall emission rose to 50 percent between 1990 and 2004 with an increasing rate of 4 to 5 percent per year. It is also expected that China will be the most contributing country in GHG emission among other countries.














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