International Business / Country Report






International Business / Country Report


International business collectively allows commercial transactions to occur between several countries. In particular, this kind of business incorporates activities across borders for transacting goods, resources, and services among countries. Particularly, such operations specifically occur among the multinational corporations (i.e. MNC) with a worldwide approach to products and markets in more than a single country. For such companies to operate, it is fundamental to consider some factors that affect the business progress in a foreign market. For this reason, this report will be evaluating the possibilities, opportunities, and risks that a multinational bank will face because of legal/political, social/cultural, or economic environment for Costa Rica. Similarly, the report will also make recommendations over the Costa Rica market potentiality or whether the region needs exclusion from the considered market list. Particularly, the process will analyze the potentiality of Costa Rica for the offshore call center business (Peng 2004, p. 111).

Economic Environment

Essential Economic Indicators

Generally, an economic system of a country can affect decisions foreign firms make in establishing businesses in that country. Business and economic decisions depend on the economic activity status and economic information of the specific country. Constantly, businesses, policy makers, governments, and consumers employ economic information in assessing the welfare of the economy. To establish the market potential, economic indicators are measured (Aswathappa 2008, p. 166).

High Inflation Rate

Prices and Wage determination

Prices are economic indicators for inflation rate in specific region serving as the yardstick of wages, salaries and income adjustments to keep in pace with the increasing prices. Shaffer & Hillman (2000, p. 176) stated that price indexes serve an important role in formulation of economic policies in maintaining prices and wage stability, evaluating proposal for taxes while adjusting the national accounts for deflation and inflation. Being a developing nation, Costa Rica takes the fourth position on inflation rate, lack of maintenance plus the new infrastructure investment within Latin America (Peng 2004, p. 104). Within the last three months, the inflation rate has been higher as compared to the previous 12years. Consequently, the Costa Ricans are experiencing this pinch. Moreover, within each gas pump and store prices have been increasing. As a result, the cost of living in Costa Rica is becoming more expensive and unbearable.

For example, in 2008, between the month of May and July, the cost of living among the Costa Ricans increased by 5.5%, particularly being the highest since 1995. Particularly in July 2008, prices rose by 2.14% even though some products had a much bigger change. Furthermore, the prices have continued to have an upward battle really burdening the Costa Rica citizens. With this high inflation, the call center will have to stabilize the wages at levels that can assist the workers to meet the high product prices and manage their cost of living. Indeed, the country has approximated their poverty rate at 5% to 8%. For this reason, any particular employer will be required to offer wages that can improve workers’ living standards. Furthermore, as observed by Aswathappa (2008, p. 172), this will enable the individuals to cope up with the economic status and meet the high product prices. For this reason, the wages being economic indicators will need to align with the economic needs of the consumers. Moreover, wages serve as an indicator that determines trends and levels of payments in a particular occupation, locality, region, or industries.

Currency Exchange Rates

In 2006, Costa Rica introduced a new exchange system currency that allowed the value of Costa Rica Currency (i.e. CRC) colon to float in between two bands. Particularly, this aimed at tackling the inflation level while discouraging the US dollar usage. However, this change of currency would present a challenge for a multinational institution wishing to invest in the country. In fact, such MNEs have no option but to adapt the use of colones in place of the dollars, the most common currency. By August 2009, colon value against the dollar had decreased to 86% from the late 2006 value. Costa Rica’s government provides tax exemptions to organizations wishing to invest within the country. In fact, several global high level corporations already have began developing areas such as the export of goods inclusive of the chip manufacturer, companies dealing with pharmaceutical products plus the consumer products firms (Wu et al 2008, p. 785).

Tax Exemptions

Tax exemptions will serve as an advantage and encourage the multinational bank to invest in this country through establishing a call center. Particularly, this area has been under-exploited by the MNEs. Just as the Intel Companies contributed 20% of the country’s exports and the 4.9% Costa Rica’s GDP, so will the establishment of the call center benefit the economy (Genc & Cazurra 2008, p. 961). From the observation, it is evident that financial outsourcing, pharmaceuticals, tourism and software development have emerged the core industries within Costa Rica’s economy. However, despite the operations by these industries, it is important to note that customer satisfaction in the entire operation is very vital. For this reason, establishment of the call center is essential in ensuring customer needs receive are efficient and effective response. Similarly, Cost Rica’s residents hold high educational levels creating an attractive ground for investments.

High Education Level and Employment Level

Employment level is one of the economic indicators. Labor market information enables an understanding on labor force application and the employment statistics. Consequently, this enables the making of particular decisions in the field of human resources. Costa Rica’s unemployment rate is at 5.6%. However, establishing a call center at Costa Rica will create many job opportunities to reduce the high unemployment rate. Moreover, the high education level at Costa Rica offers the region an advantage to access various job opportunities facilitated by the upcoming call center. Costa Rica educational level is very high, making the market essential in providing quality human resource for the call center. Moreover, educated individuals will provide qualified professionals and skilled workers for the call center in the sales, customer service and support fields (Ball 2009, p. 115).

Furthermore, the call center will require hiring or employ very many staffs within the customer service department, support, and sales functions. Such individuals will be obligated with receiving or making calls to meet the multinational bank clients’ needs. Moreover, depending on the call center size the Bank plans to develop, one single office could hold few dozens of staffs to hundreds of the telephone staffs. According to Shenkar (2004, p. 164) this fact proves that the multinational bank has an opportunity to raise the living standard of the Costa Rica citizens, hence reduce the poverty level, through creation of job opportunities and employing the local residents. Costa Rica economic growth rose by 3% from the 7% and 9% in the previous years. Moreover, the activities of a multinational bank the call center in this region will enable the economic growth to increase even higher, particularly with the increased profitability levels from the business.

Costa Rica Market Accessibility

The target market, Costa Rica, is easily accessible such that their location offers easy access by to the American markets. Specifically, this is because the country has similar time zones as that of the central region of the US plus the direct access to oceans to Asia and Europe. Primarily, this makes it easy for the multinational bank to make it easily to the Costa Rica market. As such, the bank acquires a better position to develop a call center that can create job opportunities for the large educated population (Yang et al 2005, p. 183). Additionally, the country’s referendum offered the citizens a chance to support the free trade agreement that succeed with 51.6%votes. Indeed, the statistics shows that the country has a high level of visitation in the Central America region in addition to two million visitors from foreign country in 2008.

Political/Legal Environment

Political-Legal environment influence business operations, both domestically and internationally. Essentially, these factors are responsible for regulating the markets and such regulation will without doubt affect business operations. Click (2005, p. 565) claimed that negative effects of political interruption could involve taxation discrimination, limitation on the foreign national employment and patent protection absence intensely affecting the international business within a foreign country.

Political Stability

Political stability is very fundamental for any business success. As the multinational bank plans to venture into Costa Rica market, political stability need serious considerations. Moreover, instability may cause occasional business interruptions that would work negatively for the business (Singh & Rosenzweig 1999, p. 359). However, Costa Rica has a strong constitution and is a democratic republic. Indeed, this nation has had approximately 59years with uninterrupted democracy. For this reasons, the country has emerged to be among the countries that are most stable within the region.

Such stability would serve as an advantage for the call center establishment, within a stable economy. Despite the country being in Latin America, it has managed to avoid the prevalent violence plague in Latin America. Powers distribution is such that the president is responsible for executive responsibilities (Dwyer & Grewal 2008, p. 892). Legislative assembly holds the legislative powers while the Supreme Court has the judicial powers. Supreme Court has four divisions with the first division handling constitutional law, another tackles the criminal laws while two other divisions are obligated with the Merchant and Civil Law.

Labor Laws

As the management plans to establish the call center at Coats Rica, there must be a critical analysis over the country’s labor laws. Moreover, since the country has a huge educated population, this call center will be a potential employer in this region. However, it is fundamental for the company to consider that all Costa Ricans workers must be members of the Social Security. Employers are required to pay 25% of the entire salary total with an additional 9%, a deduction from the staffs. Particularly, this aims at covering the workers for the medical care hospitalization while 3%of the amount is for pension and savings fund (DiPrete & Tinsley 2001, p. 48)

Additionally, Costa Rica labor laws have set a standard for the minimum wage scale whose publication occurs after every six months. Thus, employers cannot pay anything less than the minimum wage for a particular position. Based on Meyer (2004, p. 263), employers who fail to comply are liable to fines and penalties. Similarly, an additional month payment takes place every December paid at minimum wage rate or a higher rate. In addition, the law requires employees to receive one-day vacation for each month of employment and do not take place during weekends or other paid holidays but must be the regular working days. Firing an employee, whether guilty or not must be accompanied with a notice, vacation pay or termination pay. With all such labor laws and many other regulations, the CEO must establish whether the market is viable and whether the institution has the capacity to meet such laws.

Foreign Firms Operations laws

Foreign companies operations within Costa Rica must have an appointed Costa Rican resident to serve as the legal representative holding full attorneys powers in mater relating the particular business (Frost et al 2002, p. 999). Besides establishment of corporate forms, the establishment and running of businesses at Costa Rica will need a business license application offered by the local Municipality. Such licenses will contain details such as the location of the business, Revenues Administration registration, and registration of the firm as a potential employer under Costa Rican Systems of Social Security. However, despite the requirements of all such business documents, the region provides free areas of trade zone that serve as fiscal incentives to attract foreign companies to invest in the region.

Such initiatives have heavily influenced positively on the country’s economy, they transforming the national economy direction. Nevertheless, it is critical to note that such tax advantages will suffer abolishment by 2015 under the WTO commitments for Costa Rica. Traditionally, Costa Rica has not been participating in the double taxation treaties although apparently, the country has signed a treaty for information exchange with the US. Information sharing is unpermitted between banks and tax department or any other governmental department except central bank (Aswathappa 2008, p. 518). Moreover, there are criminal and civil implications attached to information disclosure without proper authority.

Characteristics of the Legal System

Costa Rican’s legal framework in terms of trade is very tough and transparent in nature. The law has had a huge French influence yet it has been refined over the years to fit and adapt to the societal and business environmental adjustments that have been experienced through the various periods. The country employs the 1888 Civil Code that underwent refinements in 1986 in the governance of non-public business agreements; additionally, the 1964 Commercial Code is practiced concurrently with the Civil Code for enhanced business control on contracts. The 1987 Procedural Code, that was refined in 1996, is used to define the judicial requirements needed to ensure that business contracts are legally enforced and honored. In terms of the Stock market, Costa Rica applies the 1990 Stock Market Law as the governing legal system in bonds and shares trading practices (Hamilton 2005). The service sector in Costa Rica acts as the mainstay of the economy as it accounts for the largest monetary base injected within the market.

Call centers and sightseeing activities constitute to the key players in the service sector and thereby mandated to law compliance in a bid to ensure that the sector offers its projected share to the economy in terms of the GDP contribution. Additionally, the legal framework ensures that healthy business practices are upheld especially in terms of security by the fact that the call center trade is dominated by American firms. This offers both protection to the foreigners and citizens in a manner that enhances social welfare and equity. With the advent of economic globalization and liberalization, the 2004 Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement commonly abbreviated as CAFTA-DR was adapted as the legal framework that governs and offers protection to foreign shareholders (Hamilton 2005). The agreement was refined in 2008 and Costa Rica adopted it in 2009. This agreement has proved to be of worth to North America as it abolished trade levies that acted as a constraint to foreign investors. Within the near future, say by 2015, Costa Rica should have eliminated any forms of trade levies that is still upholds within the service industry.

Appraisal of Law Enforcement and Judiciary Systems in Terms of Effectuality, Efficiency and Equitability

            Law enforcement and judiciary systems in Costa Rica are still not operating in their full capacity. Company laws are greatly undermined by the lack of credible accounting programs that has led to such practices as tax evasion. Trade agreements are dotted with a bureaucratic system that increases the costs, both real and opportunity costs, and makes trade practices become very expensive. Additionally, e-commerce still lacks a governing framework. The refinement process for property ownership laws has been hampered by the bureaucratic nature of their judicial and law enforcement systems. Inefficiencies are also noted among financial institutions where foreign companies tend to acquire capital from foreign financial lenders that are relatively cheaper than the loaning rates which are applied to Costa Rica citizens (Hamilton 2005). This in turn creates unfair competition among the various business rivals and an unequal commercial system. Another form of inequity is in terms of trade rivalry that characterizes the communication, cover and energy sectors, which are monopolized by the Costa Rican authorities. Lastly, the bulk of judges overseeing court proceedings are not conversant with trade laws making it hard to resolve any forms of disagreements.

Barriers to Investments

As call centers are dominated by foreign ownership, they are offered security by CAFTA-DR, yet a big constraint is infused by the duration that the government uses before a business fully attains CAFTA-DR certification. The lack of a comprehensive law enforcement and judicial body with regard to foreigners operating their trade practices within the country institutes a significant barrier to potential and existing investors. Differences in currency exchange rates have a negative impact on the various investment opportunities that the country should benefit from (Terrazas 2010).

Socio-Cultural Environment

In order to ensure proper management of the new business, it is fundamental to understand the differences between the Australian and Costa Rica’s culture. Socio-Cultural environment is a critical component for the international business but the most complex to understand. According to Turner and Johnson (2003, p. 89), a national culture describes a body of general values and beliefs shared by a country. Australia has a population of 20million people with 93% being the Europeans, and 1% Aborigines, whereas Costa Rica population amounts to three million whereby 95% are the Europeans, 3% blacks, 1%Esat Asian and 15 Amerindian.

Approximately 51% of the Costa Ricans are urban dwellers. Costa Rica has created and maintained quite a stable democratic government. On the other hand, the country has an intensely democratic culture highly believing in peaceful negotiations. Ball (2009, p. 411) observed that Costa Ricans are politically active with a high level of pride in their government while even the voting practice is mandatory for all persons above 18years. Official language of the citizens is Spanish while English Language is widely understood. The official religion is the Roman Catholicism even though diversified sects of Protestants are growing in the region.

Hofstedes cultural dimension

Costa Rica’s highest level for Hofstedes cultural dimension is specifically uncertainty avoidance (UAI). In particular, this indicates the low tolerance level for uncertainties to the Costa Rican society. In order to reduce the level of uncertainty, laws, strict rules, policies and regulations apply. Particularly, the major goal for this population is the entire control to avoid unexpected occurrences. For this reason, high UAI characteristic does not allow the society in easily appreciating changes thus making the society very risk adverse. As compared to other Latin countries, based on the Power Distance (PDI) dimension, Costa Rica ranks the lowest. Specifically, this low rank determines low level emphasizes on wealth and power of the citizens in terms of opportunity and equality emphasize. In addition, the country has low discrimination and differentiation level between genders. Women receive similar treatment to that of men. Individualism is discouraged in this society with high regard for group participation and loyalty within the collectivist culture is vital (Dwyer & Grewal 2008, p. 893).

Work Culture

Work culture could serve as an influential factor in the success or failure of an MNC. Depending on where the foreign company originates from, there might be difficulties adjusting to the host country working culture, salaries, and hours or working. Moreover, since the new call center will be required to recruit local workers, it is important to understand the work culture in this region (Collinson & Rugman 2007, p.511). Costa Rica has two kinds of working days, including the special and the normal working day, which is divisible into night and day shifts. Normal working days have a maximum of 8hours to 10hours, on condition that the work done is light and healthy. Generally, working hours may present conflicts because the Australians work schedule has two entry shifts 8.30am or 9.30am and leaving shifts at 4.30pm or 5.30pm plus a lunch break of one hour. However, Costa Ricans working hours rate from 5am to 7pm while the night shifts rate from 7pm to 5am. In addition, the Costa Ricans have only one entry and leaving shift from their workplaces. Primarily, this may raise difficulties for the management since they will be required to align both groups to fit in the working schedule. Moreover, with the adoption of the Costa Rican working schedule, the Australian workers may feel inconvenienced since they will be required to report very early to work and leave late from their workplaces. Consequently, this may result to conflicts, hence the Call center management will be required to be strategic when formulating the working hours.

In Costa Rica, when staffs work on a Saturdays, the day is a special working day while working on this day is optional among Australians. In fact, Australians believe Saturdays and Sundays are not working days at all. For this reason, Costa Rica staffs may demand for compensation over working on a Saturday requiring the management to put this factor into consideration. Similar to Costa Rica, Australia labor laws have standardized minimum wages for the workers even though the minimum wage for Costa Rica is much lower as compared to Europe and the US. Particularly, this may lead to management difficulties as the Australian employees may demand higher pay in line with what they always receive in their home country. Additionally, the two regions minimum wages are inclusive of the work benefits, Christmas bonus, vacations severance, and holidays (Turner & Johnson 2003, p. 288).



Business manners, etiquette, and cross-cultural behaviors

Generally, cross-cultural limitations could serve as a very demeaning aspect to the progress of MNC operations. Particularly, this involves the way of communication, dressing, beliefs, appearance, and behaviors. Considering such factors appropriately prior to venturing into a particular market plays a key role in the acceptability of the new business, and in this case, the call center in Costa Rica (Turner & Johnson 2003, p. 111).


In matters relating to dressing, the management will not face challenges since the dressing code for the Australian and Costa Ricans workers is quite similar. Australians wear conservative dark suits for businesses plus a tie. Women should put on a skirt and a blouse or even a dress for business purposes. Informal and casual wears are acceptable during non-business functions. Similar with the Australian dress code for businesses purposes, Costa Ricans business dress for men should also entail a wearing conservative dark suits. However, in warmer climatic conditions, wearing a jacket could be optional. For formal business meetings, women could wear a skirt or a dress. Generally, Costa Ricans and Australians are highly serious and formal as compared to their counterparts in other parts of Latin America and this will offer a manageable environment the two groups. Similarly, no difficulties will occur in tackling individual behaviours during business meetings. Particularly, this is because the Australian men should not be physically demonstrative with other men or wink to a woman. On the other hand, among Costa Ricans, fidgeting using ones hands or feet is unacceptable because it appears impolite or distracting (Park et al 2003, p. 330).




Punctuality is core both for Australians and for Costa Ricans hence the management will not experience challenges in matters of time keeping. Business culture requires high level of punctuality for the two regions. Just as the Australians, Costa Ricans are very punctual people within Central America hence those attending appointments need to be very punctual. For this reason, as recommended by Shaffer & Hillman (2000, p. 188), the services delivery at the call center will effectively occur on timely basis to avoid inconveniencing the prospective customers. However, while the Australians have a whole hour for lunch break, Costa Ricans have only a limited time provided for midday break, hence this may raise conflicts to adapt. For this reason, the call center management will be required to set an effective strategy for managing lunch breaks. Certainly, this indicates the importance of time keeping and proper time management by the upcoming call center staffs.

In businesses, offering gifts is not common among the Australians even though when invited to someone’s home, it is acceptable to bring small gifts including flowers, chocolate, or wine. On the same note, Costa Ricans frequently exchange gifts on all types of special occasions. Argumentatively, this will demand for the Australian employees to adapt to this practice to avoid conflicts. Majority of the business entertainment in Costa Rica occur in the evenings welcoming even spouses to the business dinners. All the time, an individual should have proposals, business card, or any other material written in Spanish and English language (Oviatt & McDougall 2005, p. 35). Since among Australians it is not a common practice to offer business cards, the management will be required to produce cards for all their staffs to enable them to fit in this new market and prevent potential conflicts.



According to Shenkar (2004, p. 168), communication is vital in facilitating business progress in any specific region. Managing communication among the staffs within the two groups will be easily manageable because the communication process and conducts is quite similar in both regions. English is the common language among the Australians and the language clearly understood among the Costa Ricans. Shaking hands among the Australians occur during meetings and after. Even though it is not a common practice, women greet one another with a cheek kiss. Similar to Australians, handshaking is the normal greeting but embracing one another is not common in Costa Rica. Additionally, professional workers in Australia have a practice of exchanging business cards just like in Costa Rica. Workers from the two regions value highly the individual titles and should be inclusive on the business cards. Australians are very open and friendly highly valuing brevity and directness. Similarly, Costa Ricans appreciate directness in communication through looking directly into an individual’s eyes when communicating. Primarily, this will make the management of communication process quite simple considering the fact that the communication behaviour is the same.

Even though both regions appreciate titles, Costa Ricans seems to emphasize deeply than Australians on the title aspect. Moreover, individuals with no professional titles are commonly referred to as Don in addition to the persons first name for a gentleman while Dona is used for a lady plus the lady’s’ first name. Generally, such names serve as courtesy for persons doing business together. However, this may create confusion to the Australian staffs that mostly prefer titles as Mr., Mrs., or Ms. Conflicts may result from the resistance the Australian may show against such references. However, the management should devote in conducting variety of trainings on the cultural differences between the two regions to facilitate clear understanding among the staffs. While Australian value sports discussions, Costa Ricans have many good topics for conversations including historical, children, or artistic topics. Inclusive are also the bad topics such as religion or a personal criticism. Particularly, this may lead to conflicts as one group may dispute or criticize the topic of another, because it is frowned. Australians may not appreciate discussions on an individual criticism yet it is common among the Costa Ricans.

Social Cultural factors effects in serving North American customers

North America incorporates the US, Canada, and the Mexico. Each of these regions has a different and unique culture. However, the dressing code will not be a challenge to the call center in the three areas because suits are the main dressing codes for workplaces. Even though, Canadians prefer women to be in suits while this is not compulsory in US and Mexico. Canadians and the US highly value punctuality and this will work to the advantage of the call center since all the staffs are oriented in that line. On the contrary, the Mexicans punctuality issue is not rigid since the region emphasis more on personal responsibility. However, the call center may encounter challenges since this region does not routinely give gifts. Still in the US, offering of gifts is highly discouraged, in fact, sometimes it appears to be a bribe. If the call center may wish to issues gifts as way of attracting clients will receive a frowning from the prospective customers. Canadians and the US apply handshakes, even though the action should incorporate a good eye contact in the beginning and end of a meeting. Moreover, the handshake should be firm (Collinson & Rugman 2007, p. 185).

However, in Mexico, direct eye contact is unacceptable since it is disrespectful. Particularly, the call center staffs will need to be well aware of this fact to ensure they serve their clients satisfactorily. Similarly, the locals believe that a man should wait for the woman to extend the hand for the handshake just like the Mexicans. Since the call center staffs are oriented in the use of titles, this will cause no alarm because even the Canadians and the US people value titles. However, the US citizens generally exchange cards for business when introductions occur. Particularly, this will work to the advantage of the call center staffs because it is a common practice among them (Collinson & Rugman 2007, p. 196). On matters of language, English will be most appropriate since the prospective clients in Canada, US, and Mexico speak the language. However, the staffs will need to know and understands some bit of French since some clients in Canada have a French origin. On the other hand, French Canadians prefer to use only their first names in a telephone conversation but full names apply during face-to-face communication.

Particularly, this will require the call center staffs to learn this practice, as clients may be offended when correct reference is not used. Similarly, reserved staffs may face difficulties in dealing with customers because Canadians believe in openness and friendliness during conversations. In addition, gestures are unacceptable when dealing with the Canadian clients in exception of the French Canadians. In US, the call center should be highly strict in restraining smoking within the business area since the practice is unacceptable. Allowing such behaviours could send away potential clients. In fact, smoking in any particular area will demand an individual to seek for permission. In Mexico, standing while hands are on the hips implies aggressiveness while placing the hands in the pocket is impolite. Additionally, Mexican customers believe in payments for a service or a product through placing the cash in a cashiers hand and not on the counter (Collinson & Rugman 2007, p. 244).


Business environmental factors are very fundamental in determining the international business success for the multinational organizations. Furthermore, Leung et al (2005, p. 364) stated that this facilitates making of viable decisions concerning the call center business. The economic environment measurement applies the economic indicators such as employment, price, productivity, wages, industrial production, employment projections and currency rates of exchange are essential economic indicators. Similarly, political-legal environment plays a major role in regulating business, and determination of the political risks. In addition, while making decisions to settle in any foreign market, considerations of social-cultural environment are very critical. However, based on the economic status of Costa Rica, the inflations rate is high requiring any new venture to standardize their wages to allow their staffs to bear with the increased product prices. Furthermore, the wages should not go below the standards wage established by the Costa Rica labor laws. Particularly, standardized wages is one major challenge that Multinational Bank will encounter in establishing the call center in this region. However, the good news is that the wage level at Costa Rica is quite low as compared to other regions such as Europe.

Another risk of operating a business in this area is the change that occurred on the rates for currency exchange. Particularly, the government wanted to introduce the use of colones while reducing dollar usage in the region. However, Costa Rica has a low employment level providing the call center with an opportunity to recruit the locals and create employment for the local qualified individuals. Moreover, the education level of the Citizens is very high, offering the call center an opportunity to access qualified and skilled human resources to run the call center. Additionally, establishing a call center at Costa Rica is advantageous due to the political stability in this region enabling the business to operate without interruptions. Concerning the social-cultural environment, the establishment of the call center will require studying and understanding the local culture. Particularly, this will help to understand the targeted market segment while aligning the business according to the local culture. Additionally, this will also help the call center to access, secure correct human resources, and have the capacity to maintain them within the company. Based on this argument, the researching team should further analyze the Costa Rica market potential to secure competitive advantages for the business (Shenkar 2004, p. 166).






















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