Answering Questions














Answering Questions

  1. Discuss how the establishment of an organizational infrastructure that supports the integration of a career and succession plan competency models and value systems can help employees overcome the doom loop with respect to understanding your own career status.

Success of a given organization is highly determined and influenced by the choice and quality of infrastructure. On daily basis critical organization workers are attaining retirement age. However, the main challenge is to get the right person to inherit the position and have the capability to ensure that the absence of retiring staff won’t be felt negatively by the organization. Succession planning can be simply be defined as a method of doing replacements in critical organization positions. Ensuring that an organization or a company has a good succession plan is one of the characteristics of a good business strategy (Brown, 2002). Some organizations have just crumbled or incurred losses just after losing the leading manager or another integral staff.

According to competency model, different people competencies should be organized in terms of knowledge, skills, personal abilities and characteristics that are useful in any production. To have a reliable competency model, any organization should avoid the effects of biasing on basis of age or gender. Only the abilities of given person should be assessed and his or her competency evaluated. With such a model, it is very possible to have a reliable predictor of someone’s ability to deliver success. Apart from the competency model and succession plans, an organization can embark on prior training of its staffs. This is possible through seminars and workshops where different people gain necessary skills. Self-evaluation is also important to a given worker. It is through this method that one can learn whether he or she is up to the task or in the wrong job. Furthermore, this reduces chances where one works in an organizations and all his or her compatriot earns promotion but left behind.


  1. Describe what you would see as the “ideal” career management system for a medium-to-large-sized organization. Why did you pick the elements to include that you did? How does this system benefit both individuals and the organization?

Career management can be referred to as grouping of different management choices and structured planning of a given person professional career. Various models and systems have been put in place in attempt to stipulate different methods of ensuring career development. All in all, what matters a lot is how suitable or effective a given system is to certain organization or company. “Stevenson’s career management model” is one of ideal systems that can be used by large-sized and medium-sized organization to ensure their continued existence and been competitive. This system emphasizes on making a solid organization foundation. It proposes that, through team work, consultation and making use of set models of career architecture can be an important point to start from (Peterson, Mumford, Borman, Jeanneret & Fleishman, 1999).

This is because most of the career frameworks are aided by a functional center of career services. In this system combining the old and new ideas or content is relatively easy as compared to other models. For instance, for someone who is starting a career or joining a certain organization he or she just needs to learn and update of few past happenings and the past progress. It is believed that, in the process of these beginners can acquire more and necessary information in the process of their studies than it could be imagined initially. As a result, this serves as a good tool to link the new employees to the past and future of the organization. Moreover, in the process of researching and studying, an individual can gain some new skills that are important in shaping or improving their career. The choice of Stevenson model is governed by the fact that this model have tried to exhaust all factors that influence production and existence of organizations positively.

  1. Select one career development practice or activity (as described in the text) that you feel would fit well within the notion of organizational career development and the new employment contract. Describe what an organization can do to use this practice to enhance its overall career management program.

Different approaches and methods can be used in career development. However, what matters a lot is how successful a given approach is. Training is one of the methods that have been used by small and middle-sized organizations to develop careers. Bearing in mind that we are living in a dynamic world, everything is subject to change on daily basis. To be successful, an organization does not need to use hire and fire technique in order to get a competent and updated team. Through training, organization can buffer the performance of its working team. The importance of this technique as compared to other is the fact that it is less costly. Organization does not need to spend a lot of money to plan for an annual training and development workshops. Moreover, many organizations and companies have embraced training of their workers in attempt to ensure supper qualified staff and more importantly ensure they have the necessary and up to date skills (Brown, 2002).

This happens to be one of the crucial factors that have ensured profitability and success of small organizations. On the side of individuals, training is still important. It ensures that one does not have to go back to school in order to get a certain important knowledge. For instance, consider a firm that used manual mode of communication. After changing to networked and digitalized communications, employees need only to be trained on how to use these systems. Otherwise, it could call for rehiring or employees going back to school to learn on the networking uses. The choice of training as a method of career development was governed by the fact that it happens to be one of the method used and in use in many organizations. Moreover, unlike other systems, this system guarantees outcomes and success in combination with other production factors.

  1. Much has been made recently of the notion of a “new employment contract.” Some writers have suggested new ways that career development and career management practices should be conducted. Suppose you have been asked to give a presentation to the local ATD (formerly ASTD) association titled “Career Development and the New Employment Contract.” In particular, the results from a recent survey indication that association members have the following questions and concerns.

An employment contract is a written relationship between an employee and an employer. This agreement is enforceable and governed by outlined terms and conditions. If the contract is followed as written it is referred as performed otherwise it is referred to as a breach. The new employee’s contract involves first writing down terms and conditions, this will form part of the legal agreement (Brown, 2002).  After terms and conditions the next step is making the employee familiar with the job at hand. This includes things such as job expectations and salary, off days and holidays. Traditional notion only majored at the salary and the nature of work. The other things were discussed once an employee was already in an organization. This may help to reduces chances of indifferences between employers and employees. With the current generation which coverts change, chances are high that a given person will not remain in the same company or organization from day one up to retirement. Furthermore, it is more likely that some people will shift from one career to another in life time. Therefore, the new employment contract makes it possible for one to shift since one just needs to honor the contract in order to get the accorded benefits. Different stages of live are more suitable to a given job. For instance, an Engineer working in a production department may opt to shift from production to management in a later stage of life. As a result, an organization having such knowledge will always ensure that all its departments have people with the right age and thus sustained production. On the other hand, specialization is attained with time, therefore some departments requires long serving employees who have better mastery of the required production activity.

  1. Using your knowledge of the Steven’s career management model, identify and briefly describe one activity that should be included in an organization’s career management program. Identify which element of the model the activity you identify fits within

Actions of career management influence all employees at different points of their career. An employee should mind about the career planning while career management is done by an employer. However, career management should not be a single person affair but a shared verdict. One of the many things that is a prerequisite in any career management process is career planning. Planning in any career helps different employees to be able to analyze their goals and interests, consider available options and make decisions that are related to the job. Career planning ensures that an employee enjoys benefits such as career guidance, work satisfaction, training services and career information. Most of the issues employees raise at different point of their careers are not unique and could have been experienced and raised before. These issues could be career frustrations, getting noticed, managing oneself, seeking and failed promotions, competition, career ladder or career assistance. With better planning as proposed in “Steven’s career management model” could help in preventing some of such scenarios from occurring. Planning falls under vision and mission element of “Steven’s career management model”. Firms and organizations plan about their future through the statement of their vision. These are the things that they intend to gain within a specific period of time. Therefore, for that vision and mission statement to be realistic, a lot of realistic planning needs to be done. After planning, employees need to be trained in order to be able to meet the organizations demands (Peterson et al., 1999). Employers have role to play in ensuring that this is done in the best way possible. This is through provisions of services such as workshops, affirmative actions and more importantly ensuring realistic expectations.

Part II

  1. Formulate a generic understanding of key theoretical principles that have helped

shape our view of CD.

One of important career development principle includes the theory of constant change. This acknowledges the fact that things and more importantly the world is under constant change. On daily basis, people join different professions, organizations, occupations and production industries. What matters a lot is how a given person adapts to the new jobs in their career journey (Brown, 2002).  Any change that happens be it bad or good, is a source of new opportunities. Indeed, philosophers say that future is for those who can clearly see it coming. Moreover, those people who are always ready for any change are always capable of making proactive choices as compared to those who resist change. The other principle is ensuring continued learning. Holding the notion that education end after a certificate or a degree is a wrong and archaic believe and a threat to career development. The world is getting more competitive as the days moves on and failing to ensure individuals updates may make someone to be overlooked in job promotions or even his or her services become obsolete. Any learning opportunity should be welcomed with open arms.

Following your heart can be an important career development tool. Many people happen to be victims of circumstances doing what they don’t enjoy doing at all. This results from wrong career choice either driven by quest for money or poor career advices. Following ones heart leads to someone believing in own self. Bearing in mind that some jobs requires individual’s excellence, such a trait would be constructive in any production. It is said that everyone should feel motivated to pursue dreams and goals lying deep in their hearts since chances of success are higher than those of failing. Furthermore, following your heart desire will ensure that a given person pursue life dreams.

  1. Obtain familiarity with one or more career development models.

One of the main principles of career development that has shaped my view is the theory of self-concept change. This concept looks at different stages of human being development from birth up to the old age. From birth to around fourteen years, this is the growth period. From the age of fourteen to twenty four is the age of exploration. At this point is where people gains different skills through schooling and skills development programs. From twenty five years to forty four years is the age of establishment, people gain different skills and work experience. This is the most productive part in career development. After the age of forty four up to sixty five, this is the region of maintenance. Most people maintain their jobs and only seek for promotions. From sixty five years and above the production of a given person is on decline. Across the globe, most countries have their retirement age between sixty and sixty five years. The other theoretical principal is the “Trait-Factor Theory”. This theory bases its argument on early 1990’s. It assumes that different people have different traits patterns constituted by their values, interests, personal characteristics and abilities. These traits can however be profiled and identified to indicate a given person strength.  The other assumption that makes this principal a realistic theory is argument that any given occupation is constituted by factors that are necessary to ensure successful performance in the given occupation (Peterson et al., 1999). In addition, it proposes that it is likely to pinpoint a match between job and a certain person traits by making use of the process of decision making. The more close the relationship between different jobs and personal traits, the higher the chances of successes and worker satisfaction.

  1. Demonstrate enhanced self-growth for engaging in the processes of career planning and management.

Career planning and management is a process that helps an individual think and plan about the set career goals. It also helps in improving skills and knowledge for a given person career position and opportunities of future job. In order to succeed in your current job, one has to think on ways on how to make use of talents, strengths, work passion and experience in the best way possible. The process of managing and planning your career starts with writing down a clear and realistic plan of career development. After writing the plan, the next step should be discussing those development goals with a manger. After making a good career decision, an individual should embark on the real planning on how to make those decisions realistic.

A good career plan should provide structure, vision, motivation and directions of an individual’s process of career development. Whenever people think about planning in career development, they always look at actions or assets they have that are useful in taking individuals career to the next level. However, the worrying issue is most people reserve these ideas for months if not years without writing them anywhere. Even those who take a step that to write down their plans never follow what they have written. Mostly they either end up misplacing the notes or the plan just forms a long list of things to do, some of which will never be accomplished. These are poor practices in career in career management and should be discouraged at all cost. It is recommendable that people should think and look at career planning as a method that makes visualization of future careers possible. Upholding this will make career planning productive and effective and indeed a good roadmap to deliver goals and targets. Career planning is a continuous process unlike some people thinking that is an activity one should embark on once or twice in life time (Peterson et al., 1999).

  1. Acquire a proficient understanding of the dimensions and processes of organizational career management.
    Just like career planning, career management is a continuous process and should not end after the first management. It is an integral part of someone’s career journey. A good example is just like a car, in order to ensure you have smooth drive one has to ensure that the car is maintained regularly. The same case applies to the career management. The other dimension of career management is based on how active an individual is. In order to acquire expected results, one should not sit and relax waiting for another person to do the management on behalf of him or her. Otherwise, such an undertaking will lead to another person career. Therefore, the directly affected person should be the main party and participant in any career management. Unless you make a perfect structure, you will not benefit from career management.

Structures help any process to progress as planned. The process of career management involves three integral steps. These steps are establishing goals, tracking goals and course correcting. Establishing career goals is the real brass tacks of any career management in order to try to understand the targets to achieve. To many people, this seems to be the hardest part of career management. However, to simplify this task, each goal should be subdivided into relatively small sections to allow ease following. After establishment of career goals, keeping a tract on those goals should follow. This is progressive or continuous method of monitoring process of career management. Once the monitoring is thoroughly done, it aids in avoiding chances of stagnation and more importantly makes sure that all career goals have been incorporated methodically in the whole of someone’s career life. Just as someone advances with time career goals also changes as time moves on. Therefore ensuring a good monitoring method can help in pinpointing new destinations and paths to reach those destinations.

  1. To build a basic knowledge of the assessment tools and measurement processes commonly used for workplace career planning.

Personal interest, values and personality plays an important part taking a career choice. By use of different assessment tools, it makes planning more possible and a smooth process. Self-assessment tools helps people in making knowledgeable career decisions, how to gather useful information on interest, values and personality. The following assessment tools have been used in workplaces in attempt to do career planning. First is discovering potential, interest and skills. Some career takes interest and potential. Failing to choose the best job that suits your interest may lead to poor job execution. Some people never excel in their field area since they do not enjoy doing their current jobs.

Personality is another tool that can be used in assessment at work place. Some people personalities do not suit their jobs. For instance, in order to excel in mass communication and journalism sector, one has to have personal traits that anchor with the field. This is the reasons as to why some shows are more popular than other in local and international televisions. On the other hand, measurement processes in workplace involves practices such as, reviewing capabilities, clarify measurement and weighing results. Reviewing capabilities can be defined as the process of appraising and assessing present capabilities and it is always the initial step in process of career management (Brown, 2002).  After reviewing capabilities, the next step is clarifying measurement. This is all about pinpointing and identifying goals and starting points. Methods to achieve succession goals should be devised and followed.  After knowing your potentials and capabilities individuals should weigh their competence and abilities to achieve set targets. Moreover in developing a good succession plan, leadership development and capabilities should be weighed in reference to long term and short term strategies of a given business or an organization.

  1. To cultivate through self-assessments, human resource planning skills for counseling employees in the workplace.

Self-assessment is an essential source of input incorporated in the annual performance review in a workplace. Self-assessments give each employee a chance to advocate for their job performance and actively participate in the review process. By doing so, one gets ample time to reflect on their accomplishments, strong suits, challenges, and opportunities for improvement. An employee gets to voice their professional and career development desires and interests. Self-assessments assist in boosting of morale in the workplace and knowing the areas in which an employee may need counseling in. Some planning skills are paramount as discussed below. Future-oriented planning skills involve successful performance discussions with employees. For performance discussions to achieve optimal employee motivation, they must be considerately scheduled, greatly interactive, and future-oriented. Outcome of these reviews should have a positive effect in the workplace in that the future is critically looked at with extensive discussion of the critical performance dynamics and professional development strategies.

Communication skills are also important since the management should be able to cooperate with different personalities, effectively deliver good or bad news, and coach employees. These skills enable for the proper counseling of employees in their challenging areas. Such people are also approachable at any time by the employees for coaching and motivation (Peterson et al., 1999). Fairness and strong ethics skills are crucial. The HRD staff should maintain confidentiality of the counseling programs with the different employees. They should also not be biased on basis of race or gender of any employee.

In conclusion, self-assessments are important in counseling of employees in the workplace. High morale and an appropriate environment yields high output thus leading to better profits.

  1. Assess the necessary roles and responsibility of management and HRD professionals in support of a developmental culture.

Management is crucial in creating a developmental culture in the workplace. Their input with the help of HRD professionals assists in setting the desired pace for organizational development. To create a developmental culture, management and HRD professionals need to possess some necessary roles and responsibilities as discussed below. Planning involves mapping out effective means of achieving a certain goal. Adoption of this role enables encouragement of the staff in improving company sales. To achieve this goal, some necessary steps need to be taken such as increasing advertising, inventory, and staff. Another role is organizing which is implemented after proper planning by organizing a team and facilities needed in accordance to the plan. These teams are assigned work and one member appointed the overseeing authority. Staffing is an essential role of HRD. They collaborate with management so as to properly discern organizational needs so as to recruit, select, train, and develop employees. Proper staffing, appraisal, and development of talents in this department helps in boosting the developmental culture adopted at the workplace (Peterson et al., 1999).In addition, leading by example is another important step. Managers should endeavor to spend time connecting with employees on an interpersonal level. In this way, communication and motivation of employees helps in yielding a higher level of productivity. Another role is controlling whereby if a goal is not being met, the management should instantly take any essential counteractive actions to continue working towards that goal thereby enhancing a developmental culture.

In conclusion, the management in compliance with HRD professionals should appropriately implement these necessary roles and responsibilities to achieve a developmental culture in the workplace.

  1. Provide insight into the steps needed to implement a comprehensive career development process that can promote a development culture.

Career development entails activities and programs put in place at the workplace that help the staff learn about duties, improve vital skills necessary to realize institutional goals thereby growing on a personal and professional level in preparation for career advancement in the organization or elsewhere. Some steps are taken to implement a comprehensive career development process as discussed. An internal promotion is one of these steps since it is less costly and time-consuming. Hiring internally boosts morale and also by making it easy for current staff to check on available positions and apply for them. Establishing a mentoring program is another step that involves pairing up young employees with the accomplished ones. This helps accomplished employees to share their knowledge and gives young employees a chance to bud through guidance. Lastly, supervisors are made aware that supporting staff career development is a priority. These steps, if implemented, allow for high job fulfillment and higher outputs.

  1. Identify the complexity and significance of career development within organizational milieu.

The broad category of activities conducted to achieve career development in an organization help in realization of professional growth and progression of the entire career cycle. Employers and management are principally in charge of defining an atmosphere of upward mobility and sound progression is established (Brown 2002).  If management does not make an effort in doing this employees will feel unfulfilled at their jobs thus they will look elsewhere for better career prospects. Being stuck in a career rut surely drains an employee’s morale thus lowering their output. The significance for an organization undertaking the process of career development include job fulfillment, employees’ effectiveness, lasting success, job loyalty, better retention rates and organizational commitment.
















Brown, D. (Ed.). (2002). Career choice and development. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Peterson, N. G., Mumford, M. D., Borman, W. C., Jeanneret, P., & Fleishman, E. A. (1999). An occupational information system for the 21st century: The development of O* NET. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.






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