Celiac disease and PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS

Please rewrite both articles.

ARTICLE ONE (275 words)
CELIAC DISEASE
Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder that is triggered by the ingestion of gluten or some other type of barley or rye (Fasano, 2009). It was recognized early after humans started to grow their own grains that the proteins from the grains that they were growing were causing people to die especially small children between the ages of one to five years old. A more detailed discovery of gluten as a cause came after World War II when a pediatrician noticed that there was a decline in the death rate due to the war- related shortage of bread. The same doctor also reported that once the shortage ended the death rate seemed to soar back to the same levels that were recorded before the shortage.
In a normal digestive tract food is processed to a small degree and then enters the small intestine which is lined with the villi to be broken down the rest of the way. Certain enzymes from the pancreas and the villi’s epithelial cells break down the food into small pieces so they can pass into the blood stream in order to fuel the body (Fasano, 2009). Patients that have Celiac disease are usually born with some genetic susceptibility to the disease and an unusually permeable intestinal wall (Fasano, 2009). The disease causes the villi, which is a fingerlike structure and found in the small intestine to become inflamed and damaged which at that point is unable to carry out its normal function which is to break down food and send the nutrients through the intestine into the blood stream. When a person has susceptibility to Celiac disease, the gluten will cause the person to have inflammation and intestinal damage by eliciting activity by various cells of the immune system (Fasano, 2009). The cells in turn start to destroy the healthy tissue in the intestine which the cells believe to be an infectious agent (Fasano, 2009).
I learned after reading this article that there are still a lot of individuals that have not been diagnosed for Celiac disease due to its atypical fashion and therefore a lot of cases still go undiagnosed. But with new research and the ability to recognize the disease early now allows people with the disease to remove gluten from their diets before they have more serious complications.
Fasano, A., (2009). Surprises from Celiac Disease. Scientific American. August 2009, p. 54-60.

ARTICLE TWO (275 words)
PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
Psychological disorder is more or less better identified as a significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern that happens with an individual which causes significant distress (for instance, an unpleasant symptom) or disability (that is, impairment in a number of important regions of functioning) or having a considerably elevated chance of suffering pain, death, discomfort, disability, or an essential lack of freedom. Additionally, this pattern or syndrome must not be an expected response to a particular event, for instance, when a loved one dies.

Instead it’s a manifestation of mental, behavioral or biological disorder within the individual. Behavior that is deviant (e.g., religious, sexual or political) or conflicts which are mainly between the society and the individual are not psychological disorders, unless the conflict or deviance is really a characteristic of a disorder within the individual, as referred to above.

The Major Types of Psychological Disorders Are: Adjustment Disorders â—¦Anxiety Disorders Delirium, Dementia, and Amnestic and Other Cognitive Disorders Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence Dissociative Disorders Eating Disorders Factitious Disorders Impulse-Control Disorders Mental Disorders Due to a General Medical Condition Mood Disorders Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Clinical Attention Personality Disorders â—¦Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders Sleep Disorders Somato form Disorders Substance-Related Disorders Psychological Disorders have been known to human kind at least for as long as human history had been recorded.

Misunderstanding, stigma & discrimination have always followed alongside, and all of these are still present even in developed & educated societies. Information and education are the main means to reduce these. Even today, with all the research done by scientists, psychologists & psychiatrists in order to understand causes & improve treatments for psychological disorders, misunderstanding, stigma & mystery are still around the subject.

Psychological disorder is not a sign of weakness in individual character or lack of intelligence. It affects people of diverse groups that belong to all ages, genders, religions, occupational, economic & social circles. Psychological disorders may last a short period or many years or even a lifetime. Symptoms may occur from early childhood or develop later in life, with varying intensity, duration & consistency. The causes are often explained in terms of a diathesis-stress model or biopsychosocial model. In biological psychiatry, psychological disorders are conceptualized as disorders of brain circuits likely caused by developmental processes shaped by a complex interplay of genetics and life experiences, thus there are inborn, inherited & environmental factors. psychological disorders remain untreated for various reasons. Some of the reasons are stigma, cost, unawareness & misunderstanding.

Stigma can lead to mistreatment or discrimination towards mentally ill, which can affect person ability to have a functional social life or even ability to find a decent employment. The cost of treatment is generally expensive, in many cases the mentally ill have no means of affording these expenses, so many remain untreated because of this.

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