Choose two pieces of scientific evidence (e.g. climate archive, reconstruction, etc.) that support J. Harlen Bretz’s theory on the process that led to the formation of the Scablands, as presented in the documentary Mystery of the Megaflood

Choose two pieces of scientific evidence (e.g. climate archive, reconstruction, etc.) that support J.
Harlen Bretz’s theory on the process that led to the formation of the Scablands, as presented in the
documentary Mystery of the Megaflood (2005; Ben Fox, producer and director), and, in general, used
to make inferences about the impacts of the Last Deglaciation away from the margin of the ice sheets.
For each piece of evidence, (1) explain how the scientific evidence is used to reconstruct conditions
of the Last Deglaciation; (2) examine whether or not scientific studies actually support the two pieces
of scientific evidence that you chose. This examination should be carried out using scholarly
sources, such as, scientific journals, text books, or articles from respectable scientific organizations
(e.g., NOAA). Finally, (3) discuss problems/difficulties/potential pitfalls in using this type of
evidence for the reconstruction of paleoclimates. For this assignment, you must choose one piece of
evidence discussed in the documentary, but the other may be one that was not discussed in it.
Your paper will be 1250 – 1500 words in length (approx. 5 – 6 pages) and must contain an
introduction and a conclusion. The use of subheadings is encouraged, to clarify the structure of your
text and to guide the reader. Your paper should have the following format: Times News Roman, 12 pt
font, double-spaced, 1 to 1.5 inch margins. Hand-written assignments will not be marked.
You must fully reference within the text all information presented using the author, date referencing
system (e.g. APA). You must use a minimum of ten sources of information. The quality of your
sources will impact the content of your paper, and therefore the use of non-scholarly sources and
websites (e.g. Wikipedia) is not allowed for this assignment. You must also assess the reliability and
usefulness (to your paper) of your sources by including as a list of reference list at the end of your
paper, an annotated bibliography following the guidelines in the Handbook for the Earth and
Environmental Sciences Student. You cannot use your lecture notes as a source of information;
make use of your textbook instead! The annotated bibliography does not count towards the page
count.
You are not required to include figures or tables; however you should consider that illustrative
information can only strengthen the points you are trying to get across. If included, figures should be
numbered consecutively (e.g. Figure 1) and captions should be placed beneath each figure. All tables
should be numbered consecutively (e.g. Table 1) and captions should be placed above each table. The
caption should cite the source of the table/figure. Figures and tables do not count towards the page
count, and should be included at the end of your paper.
Your spelling and grammar impact the effective conveying of your information and will be marked as
part of this paper. Make sure to spell check your paper before submitting it.
Hints to writing an effective paper:
 First start with an outline, then write a full draft (it doesn’t have to be perfect!). Have one of
your friends/colleagues read it and critique it, and use their comments to improve the paper.
 Do not write in the first person. This means that you do not use “I”.
ï‚· Your paper should be primarily based on facts, or concrete ideas; not on rhetoric. You may
cite the opposite viewpoints developed by other climate scientists, but these perspectives
should themselves be grounded on scientific facts.
ï‚· Stick to the page limit! Your TA will not read pages beyond the page limit.
ï‚· Begin your paper with an introduction (first paragraph) that states the significance of the
climate of the Last Deglaciation, and which will introduce the scientific evidence for it, that
you will discuss in your paper.
ï‚· Subsequent paragraphs will provide an opportunity to discuss each of the lines of scientific
evidence you have chosen.
o Each paragraph should include an introductory sentence to clearly identify the idea it
discusses.
o Subsequent sentences develop this idea, and cite the appropriate information for it.
The last sentence re-emphasizes the main point of the paragraph.
o Make sure that your arguments actually support your thesis!
o Express your ideas clearly: make every word count and eliminate all unnecessary
words from your writing. Keep to the bare essentials.
o Make sure that the statements you use are your own. Simply using slightly
modified key passages from your sources is not acceptable.
o If you are going to include figures and tables, only do so if they are relevant and if
you are actually going to discuss them in your text. Otherwise your paper will lose
marks for its poor focus.
ï‚· Ensure that you have a conclusion, that the conclusion does not introduce new ideas and that it
directly relates to your introduction.
ï‚· The marking scheme that will be used is attached. Refer to it as you are writing your paper

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