Environmental studies and Fore

This last paper takes on two challenges, the first is to sustain a larger argument about a World level issue (Abroad), and the second is to use the Rogerian format for argument. (See Outline and review ch.5)

The chapters in your text that are related to this assignment are “Free Enterprise” and “Globalization”. These are very broad and encompassing ideas. Additionally, we need to consider the total world environment. How should we, as global citizens, approach our common future? The interchange of goods, their distribution, and their extraction from the earth or manufacture are issues that move beyond national boundaries.

The scope of this paper needs to be narrowed, somehow, to fit between 2000 and 2500 words. However, this can be narrowed in a variety of ways. First, you might narrow this to specific practices in economics, such as outsourcing. This would affect both national and international peoples. You also could narrow environmental concerns to the health of seas or rivers shared by several nations. You could argue for more support for NGOs (Non-governmental organizations), such as Doctors without Borders. By now you see that there needs to be specificity that is not restricted to the United States. You might even use the United States only tangentially, as the issue might be halting the spread of desertification in Africa or Asia.

It is important that you get approval and guidance on your chosen topic. You should not submit an outline on a non-approved topic, and certainly not a rough draft and final draft. If you must change your topic after approval, you will need reapproval and possibly a new outline (if submitted). Therefore, choose carefully. You want something that you can complete within the time scope of the paper, within its word limits, and with full support. Most importantly, perhaps, you want to choose something that you are interested in intellectually, and perhaps ethically, so you will be able to sustain your efforts over the next four weeks. Finally, you must be able to write this paper using not only the form but also the ideals of the Rogerian argument. Your tone and word choice are very important here, in addition to your research and technical skills.

This paper unit will include an Outline and an Annotated Bibliography, which are described and submitted separately.

The Bottomlines:

2000-2500 words in MLA style citations and layout (you may use APA, with approval, but must be consistent in its use)
a global topic with approval
an approved outline using the Rogerian worksheet
ten sources distributed as follows (at least one of each):
You may also include interviews, radio transcripts, and other forms of reliable sources.
a separate Annotated Bibliography
between 1-3 block quotes in proper format (quotes of 4+ lines)
Works Cited (or APA References) included in the paper, not the Annotated Bibliography
You will be assessed on your rhetoric, support, and technical prowess, as well as adherence to the assignment criteria.
This assignment will have a variety of checkpoints throughout the rest of the quarter and unit. Your paper may be submitted to an originality checker. Papers without proper documentation and/or proper naming and submission requirements may not be graded.The Rogerian Model:

Below is a chart that explains the “Rogerian” structure of presenting an argument*. Carl Rogers offered a model for persuasion that relies on the acknowledgement of both sides of a debate. Key to this model is the presentation of materials from both sides of the issue, followed by discussion of the particular contexts that make your “stance” the most viable option.
Organizational Element
Use this section to state the problem that you hope to resolve. This allows you to show the issue as one in need of a solution while offering the reader your essay as a positive resolution.
Summary of Opposing Views
Use this section to state the views of your opposition. It is important to stay objective (neutral and accurate).
Statement of Understanding
This is a tricky section. You need to acknowledge that these opposing views have merit, but suggest to the reader that you would like to offer some more information for further consideration. You should be diplomatic, but don’t make concessions.
Statement of Your Position
Present the heart of your argument in this section. You must discuss the reasons why you have taken your position and cite the supporting evidence.
Statement of Contexts
This section follows the “position” section for obvious reasons. It allows you to show when your position is the most logical option. This shows that though you are conscious of the merits of the other opinions, certain circumstances make your position the viable option.
The conclusion allows you to appeal the interests of your readers. Show them how they could benefit from your solution or how the larger community would be made better by your position.An Annotated Bibliography is an expansion of the Works Cited format you have been using with the addition of summary about the sources used.

You will need ten sources for your Annotated Bibliography.
These sources must exhibit the same distribution of source types as the final paper requirements. (See Essay 3 instructions.)
Each summary should be 150+ words.
The first sentence should be a one line summary of your source.
The summary should not include personal commentary for this version. (There are versions that are evaluative, but this is strictly summary.)
Even if you are using APA for your final paper, you must use MLA format for the Annotated Bibliography.
Don’t write an overly detailed summary. Your goal is a single paragraph of five to ten sentences.
Preserve the balance and proportion of the original work. If the original devoted 70% of its space to one idea and only 30% to another, your summary should reflect that emphasis.
Below is what the OWL at Purdue has to share. Note that these versions give the option of comments, unlike ours. Also note that these should be double-spaced, as are papers.

(From the OWL at Purdue, resource #614/03) owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/614/03/

Lamott, Anne. Bird by Bird: Some Instructions on Writing and Life. New York: Anchor Books, 1995. Print.
Lamott’s book offers honest advice on the nature of a writing life, complete with its insecurities and failures. Taking a humorous approach to the realities of being a writer, the chapters in Lamott’s book are wry and anecdotal and offer advice on everything from plot development to jealousy, from perfectionism to struggling with one’s own internal critic. In the process, Lamott includes writing exercises designed to be both productive and fun.

Lamott offers sane advice for those struggling with the anxieties of writing, but her main project seems to be offering the reader a reality check regarding writing, publishing, and struggling with one’s own imperfect humanity in the process. Rather than a practical handbook to producing and/or publishing, this text is indispensable because of its honest perspective, its down-to-earth humor, and its encouraging approach.

Chapters in this text could easily be included in the curriculum for a writing class. Several of the chapters in Part 1 address the writing process and would serve to generate discussion on students’ own drafting and revising processes. Some of the writing exercises would also be appropriate for generating classroom writing exercises. Students should find Lamott’s style both engaging and enjoyable.

In the sample annotation above, the writer includes three paragraphs: a summary, an evaluation of the text, and a reflection on its applicability to his/her own research, respectively.
For information on formatting MLA citations, see our MLA 2009 Formatting and Style Guide.

Sample APA Annotation
Ehrenreich, B. (2001). Nickel and dimed: On (not) getting by in America. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
In this book of nonfiction based on the journalist’s experiential research, Ehrenreich attempts to ascertain whether it is currently possible for an individual to live on a minimum-wage in America. Taking jobs as a waitress, a maid in a cleaning service, and a Wal-Mart sales employee, the author summarizes and reflects on her work, her relationships with fellow workers, and her financial struggles in each situation.

An experienced journalist, Ehrenreich is aware of the limitations of her experiment and the ethical implications of her experiential research tactics and reflects on these issues in the text. The author is forthcoming about her methods and supplements her experiences with scholarly research on her places of employment, the economy, and the rising cost of living in America. Ehrenreich’s project is timely, descriptive, and well-researched.

The annotation above both summarizes and assesses the book in the citation. The first paragraph provides a brief summary of the author’s project in the book, covering the main points of the work. The second paragraph points out the project’s strengths and evaluates its methods and presentation. This particular annotation does not reflect on the sources potential importance or usefulness for this person’s own research.
For information on formatting APA citations, see our APA Formatting and Style Guide

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