Twelfth century France witnessed the apperance of a new literary genre, the romance, which differed in important ways from the epic, and earlier literary form, best ecemplified by Beowulf, which celebrated above all military valor. Chretien de Troyes was probably the most influential author of romances. What are some important themes in the romances of Chretien de Troyes? Which themes were new, especially when compared to the military prowess adn bravery stressed in the earlier epics? In answering these questions, make sure to refer to specific examples from Lancelot and Perceval.