You write in my last order about
The application of principles of effective teaching and learning to each of the four macro skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing
there is however limited explanation and application in the lesson for an assignment of this size. in Part B i designed lesson plan i need you to apply same principle and edit it
please follow all comments of my teacher and correct it .
I want write U2014 will complete this assignment
METHODOLOGY IN LANGUAGE TEACHING
Part A: In 2000 words (approximately) analyse and justify the application of selected principles of effective teaching and learning to each of the 4 macro skills of listening and speaking, reading and writing.
Part B: Design (1000 words approximately) one learner-centred and form-focussed lesson (recommend 35–45 minutes) in which the focus is developing the macro skills of listening and speaking OR reading and writing. There should be a clear connection between the content and ideas of Part A and the lesson you design in Part B.
- indicate the language of instruction and language proficiency of the students
- provide learner-centred objectives and samples of expected target language outcomes by the students
- provide a copy of the materials designed for the lesson including model or sample student responses. (The lesson is to be original, not to be copied from another source – images, listening text, and reading texts must be acknowledged using APA conventions)
|Total Number of Words||Essay||1600 words [ITS1]|
|Total Number of Words||Lesson plan||500 words [ITS2]|
The application of principles of effective teaching and learning to each of the four macro skills: listening, speaking, reading and writingü[ITS3]
Any successful learning process must involve four types of learning. These include listening, speaking, reading and writing (Richard & Renandya, 2000, p. 251). The learning of a second language is no exception, as it must involve these processes too. Listening and reading form some of the most important components of the learning process. Additionally, it is important to note that reading and writing gives people a means of preserving language. On the other hand, listening and speaking are used as a means of communication as opposed to preservation. Listening and speaking helps people understand each other while reading and writing build on this understanding. The learning process is based on principles, some of which include meaning, knowledge and communication competency [ITS4] (Wallace, 2001, p 16). The purpose of this essay is to explain in detail how these macro-skills work and how they are related to the application of the three principles[ITS5] . Meaning& form-based instruction knowledge and communication competence enhance the reading, writing, speaking and listening skills by transforming the hidden sense of the language into a more significant form.
Listening is the process of receiving what others say. It can also be defined as the opposite of[ITS6] speaking. The first step of listening is hearing what the other person is saying. This involves listening attentively, which is also referred to as active listening (Helgesen, 2004, p. 56). In the learning process, listening is an important aspect as it is the first step of learning. Listening is a selective process as a person only hears that which he wants to hear. The second step in the in listening is understanding. When a person listens attentively, they can easily get the meaning of whatever they hear (Nunan, 1995, p. 89). Listening and speaking are related concepts because if one cannot understand what they hear, they cannot speak.
In relation to the principles, listening in a second language class involves a top-down process. This is whereby a person hears something, puts it into a certain context and derives meaning from it (Duzer, 1997, p. 67). This is where the schema developing strategy comes into play. Teachers build schema in order to give students some background knowledge through which to place things into context. Teachers use the schema development strategy to help students hear and understand what they are taught [ITS7] (Rost, 2002, p. 43). Thirdly, listening is an important aspect in the acquisition of communication competence. In order to be fully competent in a foreign language, a person must focus on effective listening [ITS8] that eventually leads to speaking. . For example, in listening lesson. Teacher Develop a pre-listening activity for students to talk about their own experience; before they listen to the video and answer the activity. The activity provided depends on age level .for instance for the beginner. The activity contains putting the picture in order. This needs the student to listen carefully and follow the sequences However, students are learning not testing so they will listen all over again .Another activity is provided for intermediate level contain tree question .first question ,students will listen and choose right answer, second is match the question and answer Last question is that ask student to imagine they are going camping .what they are need and why?
Speaking is the process through which more than one person derives meaning from words using verbal symbols (Gardner, 1985, p. 86). Although indirectly, speaking is an integral part of second language acquisition. It generally involves imitating the teacher or an audio recording of the words that one is learning. Speaking is an integration of the listening and understanding skills above. This is because, if a person does not hear and understand language, they cannot speak it. [ITS9]
Speaking is an indirect component of the second language learning process. As opposed to listening which is fundamental, speaking only plays a supporting role in learning a second language. First, in order to derive meaning from words, it is not necessary for a person to be able to speak. However, second language teachers can use the principle of prior knowledge to help students learn faster. By building schema, teachers can enhance student’s ability to speak as they relate each word to something that they already know (Howatt & Dakin, 1974, 100). Speaking is also essential in achieving communication competence as one can gauge a person’s language level from speech. Additionally, teachers can use audio-visual methods to help fasten student’s speaking skills. Speaking helps build communication competence as it gives students the ability to make conversation. [ITS10]
No doubt to argue that form focused speaking is of vital importance while acquiring other language [ITS11] .Form focused instruction is largely based upon drill practice [ITS12] and skilled teachers can play a vital to provide form focused instruction in a challenging, smooth and interesting manner so that student can get exact idea and meaning of what they are saying .Formed focused instruction pays special attention on towards pronunciation, speaking, grammar and vocabulary, and meaning-focused instruction, that is, opportunities to produce meaningful spoken messages with real communicative purposes. In other hand, developing the Learner’s Knowledge of Language Items by focus on meaning-focused speaking activity follows some form-focused instruction. For example, student leaning new vocabulary in full sentences to give meaning. Teacher introduce new topic and should supply the structure of sentences and encourage student to say new vocabulary. For example, teacher asks the students brainstorming about Topic; teacher writes the vocabulary on the board then she writes the example of sentences structure on the board either. Students will choose one vocabulary and think why he/she needs it. For example, teacher varies the way the substitution is signalled to the learners, for example, on the board there may be a substitution new vocabulary list like this:
“When we go camping we need to take a tent. Because we need to go inside it and sleep”
[ITS13] Light, food, clothes
Reading is also another important aspect of learning a second language. Through reading, teachers can gauge a student’s progress in learning language. One of the most important aspects of reading as a macro-skill is that it requires specific instructions and conscious effort (Richard & Renandya, 2000, p.251). A teacher has to ensure that learners understand the relationship between letters and sounds. This is because there are some letters that appear on the written text but are not sounded during speech. Secondly[ITS14] , teachers can use the phonic approach to teach students the connection between written and spoken language.
In the application of principle, teachers should encourage reading for meaning. Form should only come as a sub-ordinate component after meaning (Hedge, 2002, p. 112). Students should be encouraged to read foreign language aloud as it helps them build their understanding of the language. Additionally, extensive reading helps students to build vocabulary and gain general knowledge. Reading also helps students gain communication competence as they become more conversant with the language. ü
Preschool children learn reading by associating the words with pictures. This builds their vocabulary and makes learning interesting and fun. Teachers can use different methods of encouraging reading. For instance, they can challenge the child to find a new word every day. Children in kindergarten enjoy games. The teachers can introduce word plays and letter games to enhance the child’s learning development and increase their interest. Children who are at the beginners’ level enjoy making up stories[ITS15] . The teacher starts a story and the children are encouraged to continue developing the story. No repetition is allowed and they can be encouraged to add new words as they take turn at telling the story. At this level, the children also enjoy playing with words. The teacher can introduce some simple tongue twisters and encourage the children to repeat them aloud at different paces. This helps in developing a child’s frequency.[ITS16]
Writing is also a vital macro-skill in learning [ITS17] a second language. Writing helps learners to express their ideas in a different form other than speaking. It also helps enhance their thought organization skills. Writing plays an important role in enhancing communication competence as the expression of ideas through writing is a form of communication.
The process of writing involves four steps including planning, drafting, editing, and revising (Richard & Renandya, 2000, p. 304). Planning is the first step and involves coming up with an outline of ideas that a person wants to incorporate in their writing. Drafting involves actual writing where a person makes a rough sketch of what the actual essay will look like. Editing is the next step and involves writing the final draft while correcting mistakes from the rough draft. Revising is the last step where a person reads the whole paper again to see if there are any mistakes. A second language learner should be encouraged to follow this process of writing as it makes writing easier. Teachers should always build students schema before they start writing to give them an idea of what they should do. In summary effective writing, encourages communicative competence.
Teachers can increase the interest of the kindergarten children by activities such as tracing letters and simple pictures and colouring. [ITS18] Those at the intermediate level can start creating flash cards based on the lessons they have learnt during the week. They can then challenge each other with the supervision of the teacher.
In summary, the four macro-skills discussed above are essential parts of the second language learning process. Listening, which includes hearing and understanding, is the most fundamental as one cannot learn without listening (Richards, 2006, p. 34). Speaking, reading and writing also play an important role in enhancing communication competence. As seen above, teachers can use the three principles (meaning &form-based instruction, knowledge and communication competence[ITS19] ), to enhance the language learning process.
Subject : English
Time Line : 45 minuets
Level of Proficiency : beginner -Intermediate
Age : 6– 10 years
Topic : Going Camping
Language Skills : speaking and listening
1- Learning new vocabulary
2- Learning how to say sentences structure
3- building up the schema
Teacher preparation: work sheets, pictures. Sentences structure, video, work individual and Or in pair [ITS21]
Resources: the worksheets and video are taken from British Council website: http://learnenglishkids.britishcouncil.org/en/kids-talk/whats-your-news-camping
The author of the activities and videos is Sally Trowbridge.
In Libya culture schools are usually have trips every years as well as some families do. So I choose online resource to introduce all material that they need to “Go Camping” in English
1- New vocabulary
2- Developing the Learner’s Knowledge (building the schema) of Language Items by focus on meaning-focused speaking activity follows some form-focused instruction.
LANGUAGE LERNING OBJECTIVES
EXPECTED STUDENTS LEARNING OUTCOMES
I. INTRODUCTION (10 Minutes)
I. STUDENTS LISTENING AND SPEAKING ACHIEVEMENTS
|1-Develop a post-listening [ITS23] activity for students to talk about their own experience;
|1- Students will build up their schema about topic.
2- Students will be able to say full meaningful structure.
3- Students will be able to replace the new vocabulary in same sentence structure and think why they need it[ITS24] .
“When we go camping we need to take a tent. Because we need to go inside it and sleep “
II. ENHACING PHASE/OBJECTIVES
II. ENHACING PHASE/TASK ACTIVITIES (25 Minutes)
ENHACING PHASE/LEARNING OUTCOMES
|After the lesson, students will be able to name all the need of Go Camping. They will have gained knowledge.||
Part A: 1- students will be asked to think of all the words they need connected with the topic and she writes list of new vocabulary on the board.
2-Student will be showed the structure of sentence and teacher says it aloud then she asks the students repeat it once and then to chose one need from the list and say it in same structure and why. For example “When we go camping we need to take a tent. Because we need to go inside it and sleep “
1-Teacher set the video and tells the student to listen and watch to Dylan who gets ready to go camping.
2- Student will be asked to listen carefully to Dylan in ‘what’s your new’
2-Teacher asks the student to listen to the video with understanding.
3- Student will listen to the video.
4-Teacher handout the activities and she will read the question one by one and ask the student to listen again and answer the questions.
5- The question are depend one age level. If the student beginner. They will answer the activities that ask to put the picture in order. If they intermediate, the activities contain sub questions[ITS25]
1) Students are able to listen with understanding to short description video about
(2) Students are able to understand the meaning of words and phrase video about
(3) Students are able to answer the activities related to the video by circling the right picture.
III. SYNTHESZING PHASE/TASK COMPLETION
III. SYTHESZING PHASE/POST ACTIVITIES (10 Minutes)
III. SYNTHESZING PHASE/POST OUTCOMES
|Student will listen again to the video and answer the activity by circling the right sequences order.||1students will be able to say new vocabulary in full sentences structure.[ITS26]
2-students will listen to the video and answer the activity.
| Learner’s Knowledge of Language Items are developed by focus on meaning-focused speaking activity follows some form-focused instruction[ITS27] .
Students expected to answer the activities effectively[ITS28] .
Evaluation of this lesson plan take place during the lesson by student’s responding to learning type and by their motivation to learn new vocabulary and language[ITS29] .
Brown, Robert Sanborn,& Nation, Paul.(1997,January 11). Teaching speaking: Suggestion for the classroom. Retrieved from http://jaltpublications.org/tlt/files/97/jan/speaking.html[ITS30]
Duzer, C. V. (1997). Improving ESL learner’s listening skills: At the Workplace and Beyond. Selected Reading. Methodology in Teaching a Second Language. Toowoomba: University of Southern Queensland
Gardner, R.C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The Role of Attitudes and Motivation. London, UK: Edward Arnold.
Hedge, T. (2002). Teaching and learning in the language classroom. Shanghai, China: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press
Helgesen, M. (2004). Listening in practical English language teaching. Beijing, China: Higher Education Press.
Howatt, A. & J. Dakin. (1974). Language laboratory materials. (ed) J.P.B.Allen, S.P.B Allen, & S.P. Corder.
Nunan, D. (1995). Listening in language learning. Methodology in Language Teaching, an Anthology of Current Practice. Edited by Richards and Renandya (2002). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Richard, J. C., & Renandya, W. A. (2000). Methodology in language teaching: an anthology of current practice. London, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Richards, J. (2006). Teaching listening: From comprehension to acquisition. Singapore: OUP
Rost, M. (2002). Teaching and researching listening. London, UK: Longman.
Wallace, C. (2001). Reading. In R. carter and D. Nunan (Eds), The Cambridge Guide to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 21-27.
LIN8002 – Methodology in Teaching a Second Language
Assignment Evaluation Sheet for Assignment 2
|Student’s Name||Sana Karash|
This sheet is designed to give you information about how your assignment was assessed. An indication is given as to how your assignment ranked on each of the criteria specified.
|The principles of language teaching have been stated but limited analysis and justification|
|2. Applicability to the two selected macroskills in the sample lesson ￭ ￭ ￭ ￭
|Application of teaching principles and skills has not been demonstrated in this lesson plan not evidence|
|Resources are not evident. Only oral guidance has been provided in this lesson.
A link to a lesson produced by British Council is not adequate
|In-text references where they are used are most adequate, However it is the copying text and not providing the citation that demonstrates little advance in your understanding of how to write independently in academic style in English.|
Marker: Ann Dashwood
[ITS1]Should be 2000 words
[ITS2]It should be 1000 words in the actual lesson-
[ITS3]The title is the topic of the assignment- there is however limited explanation and application in the lesson for an assignment of this size. When an excerpt of the lesson was provided in class there was more information than has been provided here.
[ITS4]Each of these principles has to be elaborated and explained. Also in the lesson these principles should be clearly evident
[ITS5]Name and outline the three principles you are relying on
[ITS6]Complemented by speaking
[ITS7]What they listen to….
[ITS8]Yes, what is effective listening? How is this macro skill taught?
[ITS9]Partially true.. but also they can attempt to speak the language through their reading of it.
[ITS10]It is not clear how they build communication competence. Your written work has not made that ptrogress.
[ITS11]Explain what this statement means.
[ITS12]Show the drill. There is no drill demonstrated in this essay.
[ITS13]You are quoting from a source and have not acknowledged it.
[ITS14]Which words? Give an example
[ITS15]Provide those examples to illustrate your general statements.
[ITS16]Such as? Again you have copied from the text. There is no acknowledgement
[ITS17]Where have you developed the principle ?
[ITS18]How can this happen and how does it affect learning writing skills in English. These are the points you have to argue in your essay, find how agrees with you, read their study carefully before you write your own essay.
[ITS19]There has been minimal support for
[ITS20]Provide a focus on the task- eg. going to an event. You are still focussing only on the language rather the language for a purpose
[ITS21]Provide all these resources and demonstrate how they are used in developing listening and speaking
[ITS22]By choosing resources other than yours you are indicating that the best lesson you can present has been created by other people.
For this assignment the credit is with the BC design. You are demonstrating how to use a resource
[ITS23]Post listening is for after the lesson as a follow up activity
[ITS24]Provide evidence of the language
[ITS25]Your task was to set up the new vocabulary and to present the principles you wrote about in the essay in this lesson. There is no evidence of how to teach listening by turning on a video. What does the work sheet contain. How is it being used to confirm student understanding?
[ITS26]What is the new vocabulary? Your lesson plan is very limited in content.
[ITS27]Where is the language development demonstrated? Where are the worksheets?
[ITS28]What does this mean?
[ITS29]This type of statement holds limited meaning and does not have an evaluation sheet or any language items that students did respond to during the lesson.
[ITS30]See APA referencing. Also give the date yo0u accessed the source