Big Bang Theory

Big Bang Theory

            The big bang theory is a scientific theory that explains the emergence and development of the universe. It is the most highly accepted theory for the origin of the universe. The big bang theory explains that the universe was formed around 13.9 billion years ago. This theory assumes that there was nothing before the formation of the universe. The big bang theory says that the universe emerged from a very hot, dense matter, “the big bang” (Fox, 2002). This later cooled, expanded and formed what is the current universe. The universe continues to expand and cool even today. Remains of the hot, dense substance can still be seen in the universe.

The theory was first developed in 1916 by Albert Einstein. In this year, he developed the General theory of relativity. His theory was an improvement of Isaac Newton’s law of gravity of 1680. It was different from Isaac’s law in that, it applied to both objects in motion and objects at rest. Einstein proposed that gravity was affected by time and space rather than the gravitational pull on its own. The general theory of relativity explained strange occurrences in the orbit of Mercury, which was not clarified in Isaac’s law of gravity.

Another model used to explain the big bang theory is the cosmological principle (Peacock, 1999). This principle was developed after attempts by various scientists to apply the general relativity conclusions to the universe at large. In this principle, it is assumed that all matter in the universe is homogenous and isotropic. This means that all matter on the surface of the universe is the same no matter the location. In addition, the distribution of galaxies can be observed from the universe. Alexander Friedman is also a man to reckon because he formulated the governing equations of this theory. Edwin Hubble in 1929 discovered that the distances between galaxies are equal to their red shifts (Fox, 2002). In addition, the distance between individual galaxies and clusters of galaxies is still increasing. This means that they were much closer in earlier times. This closeness created intense heat and pressure that led to the formation of the universe.

There is much evidence to support the big bang theory. Firstly, Hubble’s law. This law discusses the fact that, the galaxies are moving away from the universe at different speeds. This means that the farther the galaxy, the faster it is moving away from the universe. The speed at which the galaxies are moving away from the universe is proportional to its distance from the universe. This law supports the big bang theory in that it is all for the early expansion of the universe from its previous small size. Secondly, remains of the immense heat are still found on the earth’s surface. Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson are known for their discovery of 1965 (Peacock, 1999). They discovered a cosmic microwave background radiation that encompasses the surface of the universe. Thirdly, light elements like hydrogen and helium are found on the surface of the universe further supporting the big bang theory.

There are also limitations when it comes to the big bang theory. This theory does not say anything about what happened before the formation of the earth. It just gives the happenings since the formation of the universe. The main problem with the big bang theory is that it is based on assumptions rather than facts. Though these have generally been solved, problems keep on emerging leaving room for more research. The big bang theory is considered the most viable model for the origin and evaluation of the Universe. Changes are frequently made to this theory after long research. Proposals have been brought forward concerning improvements to this theory. Some include Harte Hawking no boundary condition, brane cosmology models and chaotic inflation. Other theories on the origin of the universe include the nebular theory, Planetisimal hypothesis of Chamberlin and Moulton, scientific theory and others (Wald, 1992). The big bang theory remains the most preferred theory of the evolution of the earth.



Fox, C. K. (2002) The Big Bang theory: what it is, where it came from, and why it works. London:  John Wiley & Sons.

Peacock, J. (1999). Cosmological Physics. West Nyack, NY:  Cambridge University Press

Wald, R. M. (1992). Space, time, and gravity: the theory of the big bang and black holes. Chicago, IL:  University of Chicago Press

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