Collaborative Activity

President Hayes is the only American president to take office following congressional committee decision. The election of 1876 had ended with Haye’s rival, Samuel Tidal, having garnered the majority vote. He worn by one electoral vote in an election largely regarded as flawed. He was the first president to take oath of office in the white house, but had to take it in secret to avoid any possible disruptions .He later took again in public the following day. He is famous for his executive order that barred bearers of federal office from partaking in political acts including patronage. In his bid to reform the civil service, he sent home a host of employees among them was a future president, Chester Arthur (Levy & Fisher 1994).

President Garfield was the first senator to be elected to the presidency only for him to be felled by an assassins’ bullet about six months after his inauguration. He was nominated as democratic candidate following lack of consensus between the two leading republican candidates

.His short presidency was marred so much by politics that some of his noble work went unnoticed. His presidential appointees had done well e.g. the postmaster general unearthing of corruption at the post office the renegotiation of national debt by Windom

President Arthur charter assumed office after the death of President Garfield on September the ninetieth 1881.He had served as America’s twentieth vice president under Garfield and had to take oath twice. The first was administered by a New York  supreme judge ,a state official, at his residence at Lexington avenue on September the twentieth .In order to avert questions on legitimacy, Morrison Waite who was the chief justice administered a second oath in Washington the following day. A lawyer by profession, he was a supporter of civil rights. He is credited with passing of the Pendleton civil service reform act earning the respect of historians and is today regarded as the father of civil service.

President Grover Cleaveland assumed office on two separate times. He therefore is the only president to be counted twice as president. His first term was in 1884. As a democratic nominee, he faced odds as the republicans had been in the white house for years (1856-1884). He emerged victorious over the republican nominee James Blaine. The second time was in 1892 when he ran against whose Harrison’s wife was ailing and thus could not put an effective campaign. In a show of empathy, Claeveland decided that he would also put off his campaign His first term saw reforms in civil service as it became more efficient as excess employees were retrenched. Appointments were also done on merit. He vetoed the Texas seed bill introducing the principles of a limited state (Levy & Fisher 1994).

Benjamin Harrison defeated Grover Cleaveland on a Republican ticket to be the twenty third president in 1888. He had campaigned using the front pouch campaign. During his presidency six more states joined, the union .His leadership is remembered for its economic policies such as the Sherman antitrust and Mckinley tariff.












Levy W.L & Fisher L. (1994). Encyclopedia of the American presidency: Volume 3. New York: Simon& Schuster












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