Name of the Student:
The importance of music has never been contested. Some of the uses of music include fueling unity and a sense of well being. However the idea that music improves ones IQ seems farfetched but according to research, music makes one smarter. According to previous research, listening to mozart music creates temporary boosts in spatial abilities. This is what has been popularly known as the Mozart effect. These studies show that listening to mozart stimulates more positive dispositions and somewhat optimal levels of arousal which tranlate to elevated levels of perfomance on assessments that test spatial abilities. Another study shows that musis lessons which lead to increased music aptitude increase verbal memory, reading ability, selective attention and even undertstanding of mathematics.
The report being discussed here however focused on a different aspect of the relationship between music and IQ. Glenn Schellenberg of the University of Toronton went out to test the hypothesis that music lessons enhance IQ. The independent variable in this study is music lessons while the dependent variable is IQ. To test the hypothesis, a sample size of 144 children was chosen. The researcher then formed four groups from this number: two experimental groups and two control groups. One experimental group received voice lessons while the other received piano lessons. One of the control groups received drama lessons while the other did not receive any lessons. The groups that received lessons were taught for a year. A confounding variable is defined as a variable that is related to both the independent and dependent variable and that the researcher cannot eliminate or control. A confounding variable can tamper with the internal validity of an experiment. In this experiment, the confounding variable would have been the conditions in the individual schools of the participants. This is because the conditions in schools attended by the children could have a negative or positive effect of the participants IQ development. For example, the ratio of teacher to student as well as teaching methods.
The results of the experiment showed that all four groups recorded significant IQ increases. This could be attributed to entering grade school. The two groups that had music lessons recorded similar increases in IQ. The two control groups also had similar increases in IQ. the two experiment groups showed a higher increase in full scale IQ than the control groups. Children in the experiment groups had an average increase in IQ of 7.0 points while those in the control groups had an average increase in IQ of 4.3 points. Increases on the four index scores were larger in the music groups than in the control groups. In all but 2 of the subtests of IQ (arithmetic and information), the music group (experiment groups) scored higher than in the control groups. The results indicate that different types of music lessons lead to increased IQ while drama lessons do not have any consequence on intellectual development.
One of the limitations of this study is that it majored a lot on general intelligence. The results therefore imply that those who take music lessons are smarter than those who do not. However from experience in real life, this is not always the case. In fact, those people who society deem to be smartest for example rocket scientists most likely have never taken any music lessons. This means that apart from music, there are other factors that influence intelligence development. The results give music almost all the credit for intelligence development. Future studies should be able to measure the extent to which music impacts on IQ development; the percentage that music contributes to IQ development when compared to other influencers.
Glenn, Schellenberg E. “Music Lessons Enhance Iq.” Psychological Science. 15.8 (2004): 511-514. Print.