HIS-101 Assignment 7
1. Compare and contrast the ―elite’ and ―popular’ cultures of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Europe.
The eighteenth and seventeenth centuries were characterized by many changes, and some of these changes made the difference between the elite and the common people. The elite were interested in reading and gaining knowledge. They used the standard and formalized languages, which they were taught at grammar schools and at the university. Common people on the other hand were largely illiterate and they used their vernacular languages. The popular culture used folktales, songs and ballads to maintain their culture. This was spread in the market place, the church, the tavern and the streets (Burke, 2009). The elite developed rules of etiquette and behavior while popular culture was largely defined by religious celebrations and festivals
2. Discuss the political situation in England after the death of Queen Anne in 1714, explaining why the rebellions of 1715 and 1745 took place and how they affected parliamentary rule
Queen Anne was the last Stuart monarch and she died in 1714. Her second cousin Prince George of Hanover took over the monarch. George was largely supported by the Whigs. These were the lower social classes and those in parliament were puritan Protestants. Many of the nobles were Tories and they supported the restoration of James III to the throne. The Hanoverians belonged to the middle class and during the reign of King George I, the relationship between the monarch and the upper social class was not as strong as it used to be. There was a lot of tension since the monarch was resented by the English nobles and it responded by showing them the distrust they had for them. There were various attempts to restore the Stuart monarch but they were not successful (Lehman, 2005). They were not supported by everyone since many people did not want to go back to catholic rule. This was also reflected in parliament.
2. How were the War of Austrian Succession and the Seven Years War related, what were the political, military, and economic outcomes of the fighting, and how was the balance of power in Europe affected?
Archduke of Austria Charles VI died in 1740 without leaving a son who would succeed him. He left behind his daughter Maria Theresa but some people were opposed to the idea of a woman taking over. This was the supposed cause of the War of the Austrian Succession. Because of a treaty, which had been agreed on earlier, France had guaranteed that it would recognize Maria Theresa as the heir to possessions in countries such as Germany, Hungary an Bohemia among others. Among those who did not agree with a woman taking over control was Frederick II of Prussia and he invaded and took over Silesia. Even countries that had political alliances took different sides. The war took place from 1740 to 1748. The seven years war started in 1756 and ended in 1763.
One of the effects of the war was the peace agreement signed by Britain and France in Aix-la-Chapelle. France paid a heavy cost financially for engaging in the war and its involvement in subsequent wars contributed to its economic meltdown. The relationship that had existed between Austria and Britain was affected negatively after Britain agreed to sign the treaty with France. The War of Austrian Succession increased Russia’s prominence especially after Britain asked for help from the then Empress Elizabeth, and it renewed its alliance with Austria. The treaty made at Aix-la-Chapelle did not satisfy many countries. Austria was angry because Britain had supported its enemy and it had not helped it regain Silesia. The seven years war resulted into the signing of peace treaties in Paris and Hubertusburg. The countries, which had been involved, suffered economically because they did not gain much from the seven years war. Most of the countries had participated in the war as a way of keeping their territory. The war also changed the different militaries, with many countries opting to adopt the strategies employed by the Prussians. France had to restructure its navy. It changed the standardization of its weapons and built naval colleges (Marston, 2001).
Burke, P. (2009). Popular culture in early modern Europe. United Kingdom: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd
Lehman, E. H. (2005). Lives of England’s Monarchs: the story of our American English heritage. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse
Marston, D. (2001). The Seven years’ war. United Kingdom: Osprey Publishing