Chapter 5

Question 1

The first issue was the economic crisis that France was going through that was caused by France’s intervention in the American Revolution. This crisis could have been avoided if France’s leadership could have distanced itself from the American issues. The second issue was that as this was happening, the people were facing hefty taxes. The tax system drained the citizens of France of every penny and this angered them. The dismissal of the then French finance minister Jacques Necker was the third issue[1]. The minister had been sympathetic to the Third Estate and had worked to pull the ministry up from the mud. He had gained the trust of the people and his removal was seen as intimidating.

Question 2

Paris is not a large town physically but it is quite highly populated. The Bastille Day had the church also involved and all the people were together in the revolution. This aided the spread of ideas and news throughout the town. The social places that the people used to go to especially the churches had the greatest impact because the people of Paris by then were all catholic and went to one church. This was the place they were able to share ideas from and even plan events while also in the presence of their leaders.

Question 3

The deputies of the Third Estate who represented the common people, the Catholic Church, the nobility and of course the people of Paris were the first groups to have an organized plan to storm the Bastille. These groups were later joined by the delegates of other estates slowly and then more of the people of Paris joined this noble cause. The people and their representatives were fearful that they would be attacked by the royal military. The group, which was by then a force to reckon with sought ammunition and gunpowder and then stormed the Bastille.

Chapter 6

Question 1

The length of the working day in the pre-industrial labor period was an average of about six hours. The day started with breakfast for an hour, without which work could not start. Other breaks including meal breaks and afternoon naps were also an average of an hour long and were all mandatory. The work year however varied depending on the location or the country in which one lived in and the festivities it practiced. For instance, the work year in Spain totaled to seven months and that in England was nine months and these were taken to be the busiest in the world. In the industrial labor period however, the working day is composed of eight compulsory working hours and in others overtime which is sometimes unpaid if work is not completed[2]. The working year on the other hand has got only the national, social and religious days exempted from normal work, the rest of the days are compulsory.

Question 2

Pre-industrial period  

The location of the workplace was always in close proximity to the worker’s home. For instance, if one lived in a village in Texas, his/her working place should not have been further than a walking distance there. The quality of work was fair. The work was not too tiring or involving and the pace was almost leisurely.

Question 3

The pace of work in the pre-industrial period was slow and was almost a leisurely one. The work schedules were set by the people in charge of the work place.

Question 4

Due to the freedom the workers had in the pre-industrial period, the workers often had a sense of control over their work schedules. Their work schedules were seldom set by those in charge and they contained little rigidness if any.

















Wiesner, Merry, Julius, Ruff and William, Bruce. Discovering the Western Past, Volume 2. Geneva, IL: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2007.

[1] Merry Wiesner, Julius Ruff and William Bruce. Discovering the Western Past, Volume 2 (Geneva, IL: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2007), 150-260.

[2] Merry Wiesner, Julius Ruff and William Bruce. Discovering the Western Past, Volume 2 (Geneva, IL: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2007), 150-260.

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