Chapter 2

Question 1

Absolutists considered themselves as having the divine right of kings. This meant that the kings were made absolutely sovereign by God. This was one of the cornerstones that justified their philosophies. The other justification was where absolutism was set to be put in the context of natural law and the law of God. Another justification came about via assimilation where the absolutist rule maintained peace, thus the people would not fight it to remain at peace.

Question 2

The interior and/or exterior of palaces depict the true personality of the leader who rules over a kingdom. These Monarchs liked their taste in art, principles or beliefs in life to dictate how their castles would be designed. They always dictated the designs of their castles in a way to communicate the message that they have the absolute power. The painting at the hall of mirrors at Versailles depicted a monarch who stood in glory after a great victory in battle[1]. This was symbolic to show that he had the power to conquer his enemies. The royal chapel of Versailles had a classic aerial view and that of the Chateau of Marly had a bull’s eye window. All these were exterior designs that were made to send a message of supremacy and royalty to anyone who visited them.

Question 3

The depictions in the interior or the exterior of Louis XIV’s castle showed him standing in a tall proud pose. He also had a brandishing of himself as a Roman Emperor in an engraving on the walls of hi castle. This showed the embodiment of the symbol of royal absolutism. This was achieved by the pose, which symbolized that he had no fear and that he had total control over his kingdom. It also showed that he had absolute monopoly over power and thus the crown should be in accordance to his wishes and beliefs.

Chapter 3

Question 1

The first traditional explanation was by Gabriel Malagrida who was a Jesuit and he argued that the earthquake was similar to the flood of Noah’s time in the Bible, where God unleashed his wrath on the sinful people. However, in this case He unleashed his wrath on the people of Lisbon. Malagrida claimed that the earthquake could not just be termed as a natural calamity. T. D. Kendrick. The Lisbon Earthquake (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1957), PP. 137-138. The second traditional explanation came from John Wesley who negated what Malagrida had said by saying that the event had nothing to do with God and His wrath on the sinful people. He said that the causes were entirely natural arguing that if it was God then it would not have happened in Lisbon alone and that no single soul would have survived. He also said that so many people have died before in wars and other natural calamities worse than that one in Lisbon so it could not possibly be God in charge. The Works of John Wesley, vol. ii (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1958), pp. i-2, 6-7, 8, 11.

Question 2

One of the enlightened thinkers, Voltaire, suggested that the earthquake was caused by the effect of the rebelling gravitational pulls of the earth and the celestial bodies like the moon and other planets. Letters Concerning the English Nation. (New York: Burt Franklin Reprints, 1974), pp. 65-66, 96-97, 100, 103, 105-l06. Voltaire writes again maintaining his stand but this time questioning the logical parts of the minds of the other writers of the same subject. He especially concentrates on the writings of Alexander Pope who says that all that happened was bound to happen and that it was good since God knew about it and approved it so “Whatever is, is right”. A. W. Ward. The Poetical Works of Alexander Pope (London: Macmillan, 1879), PP. 199-200. Voltaire negates this in a poem as if to mimic Pope and tell him that God did not play a part in the Lisbon earthquake. Oeuvres completes de Voltaire, nouvelle edition, vol. 9 (Paris: Garnier, 1877), P. 470. David Hume, in “The Essay on Miracles”, suggests that the concept of miracles is impossible since the religious people have never been able to quantify it. He says that it is impossible for the earthquake to be an act of God. David Hume, Essays: Moral, Political and Literary (Oxford: Oxford University Press, i963), PP. 519-521, 524-526, 540-541.

Question 3

The difference between the two explanations is that one is religious and relates the earthquake to a miracle and an apparent act of fury from God, while the other is scientific and explains the scientific phenomenon behind the earthquake[2].

Chapter 9

Question 1

One argument was that they would make the country or state in which they occupied economically stable and raise their economy to levels which could be able to sustain them. This they said they were going to achieve through the exploiting of natural resources that the countries possessed and creating money out of them. They also convinced them that in the process of doing this they would create jobs for their citizens. Another argument that the new-imperialists used to influence the public opinion was to promise them protection. This meant total shielding from their enemies. By promising the poor and vulnerable countries that had no equipment to tap the riches that lied in their own countries, they accepted no questions asked.

Question 2

The new imperialists viewed the indigenous population as primitive people. They viewed them as sources of labor and as economic assets. The new imperialists took advantage of the lack of modernization in the countries they took over and capitalized on it to extort the locals there[3]. The lack of formal education and proper medical services was another reason why the locals viewed the new imperialists as pseudo gods and invited them willingly since they had no such services.

Question 3

The Arguments that the new imperialists delivered to the vulnerable countries that they took over differed from one country to another. This was because different countries possessed different resources and different strengths politically and militarily.














Coffin, Judith and Stacey, Robert. Western Civilizations, Vol. 2 (2nd Ed.) New York, NY: W.W.Norton, 2009.

Wiesner, Ruff, and Wheeler. Discovering the Western Past, Volume 2 (6th  Ed.).
New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2008.

[1] Judith Coffin and Stacey Robert, Western Civilizations, Vol. 2 (2nd Ed.) (New York, NY: W.W.Norton, 2009).

[2] Ruff Wiesner and Wheeler, Discovering the Western Past, Volume 2 (6th  Ed.)
(New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2008).

[3] Judith Coffin and Stacey Robert, Western Civilizations, Vol. 2 (2nd Ed.) (New York, NY: W.W.Norton, 2009).

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