What influence did the Neolithic Revolution have upon the development of world civilization?
The Neolithic Revolution was the initial agricultural revolution that culminated into concentration of settlements with high population densities, which led to labor diversification, development of art, trading economies, centralized administration, cultural integration, political structure, depersonalization of knowledge systems and hierarchical ideologies.
What were the important aspects of Mesopotamian government, religion and society? How did religion come to be intertwined with government? How does religion affect governments today?
The rulers of the Mesopotamian government were both spiritual and secular rulers known as priest-kings and they administered from the temples. Leadership was hereditary and religion largely influenced the manner in which governments were controlled. Religion acts as a critic for the government so that the government can improve its functioning in the modern world.
Hammurabi’s code reflected the Mesopotamian society of his time. Indicate the major features of this society as they are reflected in the code. What were the advantages and disadvantages of such a code?
The code brings out the wisdom and justice used to rule at that time. The code also brings out the economic aspect of the society, which was based on the use of metric measures. The advantages are that the law was easier to follow and find while they could not be changed easily. The disadvantage is that the laws were not fair and the punishments linked to them were harsh.
In what ways could Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro be considered the most modern cities of their time?
Both cities belonged to the Indus Valley Civilization, which was the first Bronze Age civilization. They had high quality municipal town planning reflecting urban planning knowledge. They had well organized urban sanitation systems. The two cities had advanced architecture as evidenced by most of the buildings.
How do the four schools of thought and religion discussed in chapter 2 view the nature of human existence? (Chinese Philosophy, Indian Religion, Hebrew Monotheism, Greek Philosophy)
Chinese Philosophy holds that human existence is limited to such an extent that people should give up their lives to uphold moral values of yi and ren. Ancient Greek philosophy holds that human existence should be based on the conformity to the way things are for people to be happy. Indian Religion holds that human existence is controlled by the spiritual nature of human beings. Hebrew Monotheism holds that human existence can be attributed to a single supreme being who created both heaven and earth.
What are the basic tenets of Confucian thought? In what manner was Confucian thought different from other major religions and philosophical ideas?
The six tenets of Confucian thought include Humanity, Ritual, Loyalty, Filial piety, Relationships, The gentleman, and Rectification of names. This form of religion is different because it postulated that human beings should give up their lives to uphold the cardinal morals of yi and ren
Develop the central concept of the Dao, or the Way. Contrast this philosophical system with Confucianism and the impact on individuals in China. In what manner were there similar developments in other areas of the world? Why would certain individuals be attracted to Dao concepts?
The central concept of Dao is Te, which means to follow the inner nature. It is contrasted from Confucianism as it refers to the upshot of moral or contemplative practices, which is closer to the meaning of the concept of Te. They influenced individuals in China by ensuring that they were morally upright at all times. Both Dao and Confucianism influence the filial duty, humaneness and righteousness of human beings. Many people would be attracted to Dao because it emphasizes on following the inner nature of human beings.
What are the major aspects of Buddhist and Jain rebellion against Hinduism? Develop the proper historic background and time frame in your response.
Both Jains and Buddhists originate from non-Hindu ethnic groups who did not practice Hinduism. In Hinduism, there is belief in different gods while in Jainism and Buddhism there is no belief in any god. The origin of Jainism dates to 3000 BC before the beginning of Indo-Aryan culture while Buddhism dates to 6th and 4th centuries BCE before the beginning of Hinduism.
Compare and contrast the fundamental political, social and economic institutions of Athens and Sparta about 500 B.C.E. What were the major differences and similarities?
Sparta had an Oligarchy government while Athens was a democracy. Socially, Athens was divided into nobility and the common people while Sparta encompasses social equality for all human beings. In economic terms, Sparta did not join other Greek cities in trade while Athens traded freely with other Greek cities. They had different types of governments. While Sparta had a strong land based army, Sparta had a strong navy. Major similarity is that they were Greek cities.
Why did the Greeks and Persians go to war? Who was to blame for the conflict? What benefit could the Persians have derived from conquering Greece? What was the Greek strategy and why did they win?
The Persians and Greeks bordered in Ionia and when the Persians wanted to take over the land, the Greeks refused and burned a Persian village culminating into a counter attack. Both are to blame for the conflict, as they could have solved it peacefully. The Persians would have benefited from the Greeks riches if they had conquered Greece. The Greeks won as they utilized the Greek infantry, which was a surprise to the Persians.
Explain how the Athenian Empire came into existence
Initially, Athens was a small and poor city surrounded by undesirable land. After defeating the Persian army, it joined with other Greek cities to form the Delian League which was under it leadership. During this time is amassed a lot of wealth and land through the expansionist policy adopted by the Delian League. With time, it used foreign policy to defeat Sparta and Corinth and ended up building a very strong empire from the land it had amassed.
What were the consequences of Alexander’s death? Assess the achievements of Alexander. How would the world be different had Alexander never lived or had he set out to conquer the West instead of the East.
The death of Alexander culminated into a number of civil wars that led to the collapse of his vast empire. He managed to build the largest empire in ancient history. Had he not lived, the world would still be divided into the small empires that were in existence before the Macedonian Empire. Had he set to conquer the West, the East would have been more productive than the West.
What are the important tenets of Zoroastrianism? How do these compare with the four systems of thought and religion discussed in chapter 2?
These include there are no conversions, scriptures and temples are sacred, observance of the Vendidad’s Laws, hope and faith in the coming of Saoshyant, final judgment after the coming of Saoshyant. They are similar to thought and religion in chapter two as they are based on religious beliefs and the things people think about where religion is concerned.
Why was Asoka’s conversion to Buddhism important in the creation of the Mauryan empire? How did this development affect world history? What were some of the policies effected by Ashoka?
This was because he had witnessed many deaths during the war of Kalinga and did not want that to happen to his established empire of Maurya. This affected world history because he later led in the propagation of Buddhism all over Asia leading to the spread of Buddhism in not only Asia but also the world. The main policies effected by Asoka were tolerance, vegetarianism, truth and love.
Discuss the major features of the Hindu and Buddhist traditions. What are the similarities between the two groups?
Hinduism is based on many gods. Buddhism is based on the belief in Buddha. Reincarnation is part of the tradition for the two religions. In Hinduism, there is an eternal soul for all. In Buddhism, removing of desire frees one from the cycle of birth, death and reincarnation. Similarities include the belief in reincarnation, the use of the same technical language in worship, belief in the cycle of samsara and belief in the escape from cycle of rebirth as the ultimate end.
What were the important personalities of Early Christianity? Why did it eventually become the official state religion of the Roman Empire?
The personalities of the early Christianity were John, Peter and James who led the early church that was situated in Jerusalem. The Roman Empire allowed all cults as long as they were noble. Christianity spread all over Rome even on the onset of persecutions and due to its dominance; it was established as the state religion in the Roman Empire. It had good teachings that could unite all people.
What were the political, social and economic problems that beset Rome in the third and fourth centuries C.E.? How did Diocletian and Constantine deal with them? Were they effective in stemming the tide of decline and disintegration in the Roman Empire? What problems were they unable to solve?
These are inclusive of climatic change, the military spirit decline, depopulations diseases, immorality, economic decline and weakness, political upheavals and racial pollution all over the empire. Diocletian and Constantine divided the Roman Empire into four parts, as it was too big. They managed to stem out the decline even though they were not able to solve the problems of climatic change and economic decline.
How would you describe the African continent from a physical perspective? What are the most important rivers, deserts, and climate zones? How has its physical geography, including mineral wealth, soil, water supply, and other natural factors affected the development of societies in Africa?
The African continent is well endowed with many natural resources and raw materials and it has the most favorable climate in the world. The main deserts are Kalahari and Sahara. The main rivers are Nile and Congo River. The physical geography of the continent has led to increased civilization of the society, as the many resources have attracted foreign investment and the opening up of international trade. They have also led to many civil wars due to the fighting for dominance and control over the resources.
Discuss the similarities and differences between the Chinese empires and the Roman Empire. How did geography affect each empire? How did the “philosophical revolutions affect each empire? What was the role of the military in each political unit?
Both empires were of the same size and population of 4 million square kilometers. Both empires originated from the integration and hellenization of many small empires. The Roman Empire practiced Christianity while the Chinese empire practiced the Chinese religion. While the Chinese empire remained intact, the Roman Empire was divided into two. Geography led to the splitting of Roman Empire due to its decline while geography strengthened the Chinese empire. The philosophical revolution culminated into the changing of Chinese religions into Chinese philosophy while it affected Roman Empire to an extent but it did not change Christianity. The role of the military was to provide protection as well as amass more land for the different territories.
Who were the four major contenders for power in the Han dynasty and how did each group perceive its particular role in society? What were the most successful ways of gaining and maintaining power?
The four contenders of the Han dynasty were The Former western Han, The Hsin New Dynasty, The Later Eastern Han and the Eastern Zhou Dynasty. The Former western Han was always in war as it concentrated mostly on fighting other would be leaders. The Hsin New Dynasty believed in the integration of the monetary status of classes. The Later Eastern Han was based on Laissez faire policy. They gained and maintained power through military action.
Describe how peasants in China changed from serfs to free farmers. What was the role of the aristocracy in this transformation? Why did the equal-field system fail?
During The Hsin New Dynasty, the leader decided to change the monetary status of the classes by equalizing and providing the serfs with land titles through the equal-field system. This means that the serfs could now engage in free agriculture in their won land. The aristocracy divided most of their fields among their serfs so that they could own the land freely. The equal-field system failed because the aristocracy felt that they could not bestow the serfs with their own land, as they would lose people to serve them.
Describe the methods used by the Mongols to control China. What advantage was there in maintaining a language barrier between the Mongols and the Chinese? What happened to the examination system during the Yuan dynasty?
The Mongols who were nomads, transmitted gun powder into China so that they could control it. Consequently, they even captured the Chinese technicians and forced then to reveal Chinese secrets. The advantage was so that the Chinese could not understand the language of the Mongols and force their technicians to reveal the ways they used to control them. The examination system failed due to the language barrier that had been maintained by between the Mongols and the Chinese.
Why was Buddhism popular in Japan? What was the importance of the art forms, Mahayana Pantheon and rituals to the Japanese? DO Confucianism and Daoism have important roles in Japanese religion?
The Japanese are said to be a people in possession of the pure land that could be favorable for the spread of Buddhism. The Japanese were willing to try Buddhism because they did not have any prevalent religion. The art forms signified the importance of meditation, which could aid in cleansing a person from bad Karma and human filthiness. They were a representation of Buddhism, which was a religion based on love, truth and righteousness. Confucianism and Daoism have important roles in Japanese religion as it is based on their beliefs.
How did commerce start in Japan and what products formed the base of trade? How did this activity alter Japanese Society?
Japanese commerce began through trade with the European countries. The first people to trade with Japan were the Portuguese who were willing to exchange their goods for the silk and porcelain from Japan. The Japanese acted as the intermediaries in the Asian trade culminating into their improved commerce. The products that made base for trade were silk and porcelain. Trade exposed the Japanese society to the outside world and led to the immediate civilization of Japan.