The selected topic is hyperemesis gravidarum. Hyperemesis gravidarum is an acute and extended case off vomiting and nausea among pregnant women. Although it is not lethal condition, is affects about 3% of the women population. It is a worrisome condition because the affected woman vomits over four times a day, causing dehydration and weight loss.
The online databases used to locate the sources addressing hyperemesis gravidarum included Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), and PubMed. Google Scholar and Microsoft Academic were the search engines used to query these databases to retrieve appropriate sources. The key words used in the literature search included hyperemesis gravidarum, causes of hyperemesis gravidarum, treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum, and effects of hyperemesis gravidarum. The search yielded four current articles; Aksu et al. (2020), Austin, Wilson and Saha (2019), Fejzo et al. (2018) and Ioannidou et al. (2019)
Summary of the Literature
Austin, Wilson & Saha (2019) provide a general outlook of hyperemesis gravidarum by delving into its epidemiology and etiology. Thy speed-reviewed journal also discusses the potential influence of the condition of the mother and the unborn child, while recommending a workup. It contrasts from the other sources by providing a general overview of the topic, while the others address specific issues. On one hand, Ioannidou et al. (2019) delves into the predictive factors related to hyperemesis gravidarum, while Fejzo et al. (2018) attempts to determine a genetic source of the condition. Although both articles try to unearth whether the condition can be identified before it manifests its worrisome and debilitating symptoms in pregnant women, they focus on different aspects. Ioannidou et al. (2019) finds that some of the predictive markers that indicate the possibility of developing hyperemesis gravidarum include a young age of the pregnant woman, high adipose tissues and body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy, and high levels of leptin. Other identified indicators include free thyroxine (FT4), beta-chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG), ghrelin, and total thyroxine (T4). Contrastingly, Fejzo et al. (2018) conducted a genomic-wide association study, which revealed that GDF15 and IGFBP7 genes were implicated in hyperemesis gravidarum because they were associated with nausea and vomiting. These genes were involved is several processes during pregnancy, including cachexia, appetite of the woman, and placentation during conception. This study does not confirm the genetic source of the complication. But it provides critical insights into the genes that could be a risk factor contributing to the development of the condition in pregnant women. Therefore, Fejzo et al. (2018) call for further studies that would confirm genetics as a causative factor for hyperemesis gravidarum. Aksu et al. (2020) approaches this topic from a different perspective by studying the personalities of women with hyperemesis gravidarum. This study attempts to make a psychological association of the condition by comparing the character traits and temperament of pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum and those without. This study revealed that pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum demonstrated significantly lower levels of self-transcendence, self-directedness, persistence, and cooperativeness compared to those without hyperemesis gravidarum. However, the study found that the temperaments of the women with hyperemesis gravidarum and those without were not significantly different. The study had delved into temperament indicators such as rewards dependence, harm avoidance, and novelty seeking, which were determined using the Temperament and Character Inventory. Altogether, these peer-reviewed journal articles were selected because they addressed different but complementary issues related to hyperemesis gravidarum, thus providing a broad-based view of the condition.
Aksu, E., Albayrak, Y., Beyazyüz, E., Potas, N., Durankuş, F., Tenel, B., & Beyazyüz, M. (2020). Distinct temperament and character traits in patients with hyperemesis gravidarum. Gynecological Endocrinology, 36(6), 525-529.
Austin, K., Wilson, K., & Saha, S. (2019). Hyperemesis gravidarum. Nutrition in Clinical Practice, 34(2), 226-241.
Fejzo, M. S., Sazonova, O. V., Sathirapongsasuti, J. F., Hallgrímsdóttir, I. B., Vacic, V., MacGibbon, K. W., … & Mullin, P. M. (2018). Placenta and appetite genes GDF15 and IGFBP7 are associated with hyperemesis gravidarum. Nature communications, 9(1), 1-9.
Ioannidou, P., Papanikolaou, D., Mikos, T., Mastorakos, G., & Goulis, D. G. (2019). Predictive factors of hyperemesis gravidarum: A systematic review. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 238, 178-187.