Scientific Taxonomy and Earth’s Biodiversity paper
The two mammals selected are inclusive of the mongoose and the bush babies. The insects selected include butterflies and true flies. The birds selected are inclusive of geese and turkeys while the echinoderms selected encompass see stars and feather stars. The bush babies encompass African primates that are small, have long tails and long hind legs that make them quick. Essentially, the mongoose is a small carnivorous species mainly found in Africa, who are most brown or gray in color (University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, 2010). The butterflies are insects with compound eyes, antennae, three pairs of legs, a three-part body and a hard exoskeleton. True flies encompass insects with a pair of halteres and a pair of wings on their mesothorax. The geese and the turkeys are herbivorous birds whose chicks are born with open eyes. Feather stars are made up of the calyx and the rays with the mouth and anus opening at the oral surface. Sea stars range from 2cm to 1 m in diameter and have five arms. All the characteristics listed above characterize the species above into different phylums that make up the kingdom Animalia.
The two characteristics that are common between the mongoose and the bush babies encompass the fact that both have long tails even though that of the mongoose in most cases is banded. Both species are fast on their feet and can be able to move from one tree to the other with ease. There exists differing characteristics between the two species. While the dental formula of the mongoose is 3/3, 1/1, 3-4/3-4, 1-2/1-2 = 32-40, that of the bush babies is 2/2, 1/1, 3/3, 3/3 = 36.while the bush babies are primates, the mongooses are carnivorous and feed on other species in the kingdom Animalia. Additionally, the bush babies have large eras while the mongooses have short and rounded ears (Books, LLC, 2010). The mongoose belongs to Order Carnivora because they are carnivorous in nature and feed on other species in the kingdom Animalia. The Bush babies belong to Order Primates and the characteristics that identifies them with this order encompasses the fact that they are insectivorous as well as they feed on different plant species. Two other species that belong to the Order Carnivora include coyotes and red panda. Two other species that belong to Order Primates include humans and lemurs.
The two characteristics that are common for both the butterflies and the true flies encompass the fact that they both possess compound eyes, antennae, three pairs of legs, a three-part body and a hard exoskeleton. The second characteristic is that they are flying insects owing to their possession of wings (Books, LLC, 2010). The three differing characteristics between the two species encompass the fact that while the life span of a butterfly extends to many days that of the true flies extends to a limited number of days because its only purpose is reproduce. Such true flies as mosquitoes are in charge of carrying disease-causing germs while the butterflies are harmless in most cases.
While the genitalia of the females in true flies is rotated for east access during the mating period, the genitalia of the female butterflies, remains in the same position during the mating period. The true flies belong to order Diptera and the outstanding characteristic that characterizes them in this order encompasses the fact that they have a pair of wings situated in their mesothorax (University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, 2010). Butterflies belong to Order Lepidoptera and they possess compound eyes, antennae, three pairs of legs, a three part body and a hard exoskeleton that identify them with this order. Two other species that belong to order Diptera are thyatirid moths and silkworm. Two other species that belong to Order Lepidoptera include gnats and midges.
Two characteristics that are common to both geese and turkeys encompass the fact that both are non-flying birds as well as the fact that both have long necks. There are three characteristics that bring out the difference between the two species. The first characteristic is such that while the weight of the geese ranges between 230 g and 22.5 kg, that of the turkeys ranges between 500 g to 9.5 kg. While the turkey has not tail, the goose has a short tail that is rounded and at other times, it might have a long and narrow tail. While the geese have salt glands above the eye, salt glands are absent in the case of the turkey. The geese belong to Order Anseriformes because they live in an aquatic habitat (University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, 2010). The turkey belongs to Order Phasianidae because it lives in a dry land habitat. Two other incorporated in Order Phasianidae are grouse and pheasants. Two other species that are comprised in Order Anseriformes are ducks and swans.
The two characteristics that bring out the similarity between the feather stars and the sea stars are inclusive of the fact that both inhabit the marine habitat. The second characteristic is the fact that both are characterized a water vascular system which is used as the circulatory system. Though both species are known to be marine stars, they have considerable differences (Books, LLC, 2010). While both have a circulatory system known as the water vascular system, the feather star posses an additional haemal system made up of connective tissue and sinuses filled with fluid as part of the circulatory system. while the nervous system of the feather stars is divided into the three parts of a central nerve ring, a second nerve ring that connects with two brachial nerves and the upper portion that is common for all the echinoderms, that of the star fish contains only the upper portion that is common in all echinoderms. Feather stars belong to Order Forcipulatida because of the number of arms that they have. The feather stars belong to Order Comatulida because their circulatory system is made up two separate systems. Other two species in Order Comatulida include sea lilies and Comasteracea while another two species in Order Forcipulatida encompass sea stars and Smilasterias.
University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. (2010). Kingdom Animalia. Retrieved from http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/index.html
Books, LLC. (2010). Animal Taxonomy: Mammal Families, Mammal Unranked Clades, Physical Anthropology, Biological Anthropology, Felidae, Canidae, Cephalic Index. New York, NY: General Books LLC