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Methods of Psychology - Accurate Essays

Methods of Psychology

Methods of Psychology

Section 1

1. The experimental method of research is used in psychology to find out about the mind and behavior using scientific methods. When using the method, one has to identify the different variables they intend to work with. The method then, by giving the researcher control over these variables, allows the researcher to test the hypothesis accurately. This enables the researcher to identify the cause of a happening and measure behavioral changes accurately using these scientific methods. This is important since the experiment shall be about finding out if a change in one of the variables can lead to a change in the other. There also has to be a hypothesis or a reason as to why the experiment is being conducted and what it aims to accomplish.

Factors to be considered when conducting this type of research are the experimental group, the control group, the dependent variable and the independent variable. The research method has demerits like the inhibition of natural behavior in the lab setting. The findings of the research may also not be general to real world situations. The method may also allow room for unethical experiments to be conducted. The research method is however extensive, has credible results and is factual.
2.         Correlational research usually means the determination of the existence of a relationship between any variables and if the relationship is strong and the direction its taking. The method has the sole advantage of being able to determine the strength of a relationship. The main disadvantage of this method is that it cannot be used to determine the cause and effect, that is it cannot be used to determine how a third party variable is involved and how variables influence one another.
3.         Naturalistic research is conducted by observation. It involves the scrutiny of behavioral changes and patterns while they are in their natural environment. It involves the counting of behavioral patterns like aggressive behavior, number of times one laughs and others. This method has the advantage of not having the behavior compromised by the researcher in any way. The method can also offer better qualitative data and not just quantitative data. The method has the limitation of the researcher altering observations due to his/her personal beliefs. It also has the limitation of precision since the control of multiple subjects and observers requires coordination, which is difficult here. The behaviors also must be pre-defined in order to get a concrete result, which is determining what constitutes what behavior. The presence of the observer also acts as a limitation since the behaviors might change.

4.         The case study method involves the concentration on a single case of a long period and it involves natural observations, interviews and psychological testing. Its advantages include the ability to gather extensive information of both quantitative and qualitative nature and the ability to concentrate on rare cases. It limitations include the inability to involve more than one case. Another limitation involved is the consumption of time and bias of the researcher.

The survey method is widely used especially to collect opinions about a subject. It has the advantage of being able to gather a lot of information in short time limits. The method has the disadvantage of data collected being based on opinions of test subjects. These opinions can be biased due to various inherent reasons such as misunderstanding of the question asked and others.
5.         Psychologists use information gathered to weigh the relativity of the variables and draw conclusions depending on the scientific methods of research used.

Section 2

            The experiments were wrong since they were involuntarily conducted on human beings. They were also inhuman since they put the human subjects under extreme temperature and dangerous conditions. The experiments were extremely unethical and had no value whatsoever for human life. However, the experiment bore a few good fruits in their results, among them being the knowledge of the cure for hypothermia that had not been discovered using normal ethical testing techniques. The experiments also gave insight to the methods used to treat tetanus and other bacteria caused illnesses.

The society today is being cautious, as it should, with experiments involving people. This is because the human life is pure and it should be respected. However, the scientists should device a way where voluntary subjects can be used to conduct experiments, which can save the human life that we so much protect. The call, I believe, is still ours and no human life should be wasted. Fro instance people who are sentenced to death should be included in such programs where they are useful for the greater good of devising new cures to diseases, which are killing millions of people every year. My stand is that inhuman experiments should not be carried out on involuntary subjects. However, in the instance where a person offers himself or herself to be a test subject, this should be taken as an opportunity to make a difference.


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