Morphine was first discovered in Germany. It was initially used as a painkiller and it cured addiction from opium. Immediately it was introduced, it replaced opium. Doctors preferred morphine to alcohol because alcohol was more harmful to the body. Morphine was used as an anesthesia during Civil War and the patients were given to use as a painkiller. Unfortunately, at the end of the war the soldiers became addicted to morphine (Hodgeson & United States, 2001). In 1906, the Drugs Acts required clear labeling of medicines and there was restriction on opium use. There was continued use of morphine until heroin came to existence. It was also said to have cure of morphine addiction (Franklin, 2006).
Morphine molecular structure is seventeen carbon atoms, nineteen hydrogen atoms and one molecule of nitrate.It is the most abundant alkaloid, among the known twenty-four. The molecule has a three dimensional figure, which makes it attract attention. Three rings are on one plane while the other two and a nitrogen one are on the other plane (Olive, 2011). These two planes are perpendicular to each other. Apart from opium poppy seeds, there is another way of synthesizing morphine. The two main compounds are codeine and dihydrocodeinone. These two have a complex network that has three carbocycles and two heterocycles. The heterocycles have five vicinal stereocenters. Morphine can be synthesized by using cuprate conjugate addition. Codeine is added to vinyl cuprate to pure enone. The result is taken through several other processes until morphine is ready (Busse & Triggle).
A study of morphine physiology was carried out. It was observed that morphine’s antidiuretic action has two compositions. The first is responsible of reducing urine. It also acts on the nerve cells. Most of these cells are in the spinal cord where pain reception is first received and processed. The structure of the morphine receptor determines the morphine rule. It has a flat area, which is joined to the aromatic ring. This ring attracts two carbon atoms and anionic site. When morphine joins with the receptor, sodium ion affinity changes on the cell membrane. This results in reduction of neurotransmitters from the painful area (Green et al, 2000).