The ideas of the presidential powers have expanded exponentially since the framing time and are still expanding. The increase of presidential powers in over 200 years legislature was the most powerful branch and for that reason, they supported the creation of a bicameral legislature. The powers given to the presidents in various countries are the key factors contributing to expansion of more powers. There are varied factors that have contributed to the expansion of presidential powers.
National emergencies especially wars like the World Wars enabled presidents to use unprecedented powers. For instance, the Indian war that was because of European colonizers who continuously expanded their territory pushing the indigenous populations westwards led to the expansion of presidential powers. The wars among the Black Africans, the White people and the Indians led to expansion of powers. Many people fought during World War II and Word War I in order to get freedom to exercise their rights and presidential powers.
Congress through legislation granted the powers to presidents. The constitutional text of granting executive powers to the presidency contributes greatly to power expansion. Inherent powers granted at the congress to a president have substantial effects in consolidating presidential authority over the administrative state. There are few cases of the Supreme Court analyzing presidential power. Presidential powers such as national crisis or military actions allow political expectations to affect public perception of the presidential office in a way that can increase the office powers.
Another factor is severe economic depression. This led to the expansion of presidential powers because Franklin Roosevelt had to make a new deal that aimed to return the economy to its recession. The stock value had already started declining and the introduction of wage and price controls led to unemployment. This led to election of President Roosevelt who upon taking office declared a national bank holiday. He introduced major changes in the economy through his new deal programs of economic relief and reform. The great depression gave rise to more presidential powers and even political extension to other countries.
Inherent powers are those powers that are conditional from the constitution. They are based on the major governmental constitution reform passed in the congress. The specific acts taken by presidents that added to the list of inherent powers includes the declaration of the United States to remain neutral. This occurred in the 1793 war between France and the Great Britain. This action was within the inherent powers of Washington thus not even the Supreme Court would tamper with them.
Another act that was taken by President Washington and that was added to the list of inherent powers was domestic surveillance. The greatest controversy was the revelation at the end of 2005 where Washington’s administration engaged in domestic surveillance without necessary warrants. In the Act of 1978, the attorney general testified before the intelligence committee that Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act acknowledged no inherent powers of the president to conduct electronic surveillance.
Bush’s administration officials spoke of inherent powers, but the pertinent statute in this case disclaims that such powers demand that the president proceed depending on the guidelines set out by congress. The congress secures warrants from a special court. Washington claimed a right to engage in surveillance of America, unrestrained by any institutional check, in war service on terror. As a commander in chief, the congress found it difficult to compel Washington to change policy from funding the conflict. This is because inherent powers allow a president to respond to any crisis.
The models of the presidency employed throughout history are willy-nilly. These models guide the frequently asked questions, any data sought and the implications of the evidence. The models employed are consistency and usually logical explanations follow them. Contradictory models usually occur in ambiguous and unrealistic conclusions. Thus, the two-model sets analysis in presidency are used. One set defines the office and the interplay between an individual and the office. Another model set interprets the presidency and apply especially to the contemporary activist of the presidency. Each of the models in each set are briefly sketched and evaluated.
The president plays a number of roles such as a commander in chief where he commands the armed forces. As a chief legislator, he takes the initiative on public policy and congress awaits the response of the presidential actions. The president has a role to play in fighting the economic downturns of the country. An example is that of Franklin Roosevelt who convinced most Americans that the president is the one responsible to bring the economy back to recession. Therefore, presidents are seen as the managers of the economy. The president has powers to make treaties, assign and receive ambassadors thus a president wears numerous hats and is generally a very busy person.
I would like to see a more powerful executive because a strong executive would exercise authority well beyond the limits laid down in the constitution. A more powerful executive leads to a completion of the required things in time. People will fear and respect a more powerful executive than a less one and this will lead to different changes especially in socio-economic and political change in the state. Likewise, a more powerful executive is likely to be respected than the one with less power. For instance, those countries with a more powerful executive like the United States of America are highly honored than countries with a less powerful executive.