Question One

The correlational research approach would be best over the other techniques, as it would accord the most comprehensive measure for the association between aggression and alcohol consumption. This is because it allows the researcher in the identification of the trend and strength of the association. The trend factor is defined by either a positive or a negative association with the former indicating the presence of an association while the latter accords the inverse results. On the other hand, the strength is defined by the terms ‘strong’ or ‘weak’ to with the former noting a high level of association and the latter evidencing a low or trivial nature of the association (Schacter, Daniel, & Daniel, 2009). As the research objectives are identified through the hypothesis set, it is therefore easy to apply this technique in justifying or repudiating the alternate assumption. For instance, if the study’s premise were defined by the notion that alcohol consumption leads to violent behavior, then measuring both indicators and acquiring a strong and positive congruence would be indicative of the existence and strength of the association.

A positive yet weak correlation would be an indication the alcohol consumption leads to aggressive behavior but the trend would be highly variable within the populace. With regard to the negative factor, a strong correlation would inference lack of any form of association, while a weak measure would be indicative of an unstable association between both variables. The correlational approach bear a number of strengths as first, it indicates the accorded variables have any form of association (Schacter et al., 2009). As the results are treated as broad measures, it allows for a flexible interpretive approach in the estimation of what variable influences the other in accordance to the accorded results. This leads to the second merit that is related to low time consumption within the study as details that could lead to higher duration are overcome. However, the former listed strength also acts as a weakness in that it does not specify the reasons and consequences of the noted association and thereby limiting the acquisition of supplementary and valuable information within the study.

With the study employing human participants, ethics mandate that the researcher must acquire assent from the partakers devoid of coercive practices. Secondly, the participants bear the obligation of being safeguarded from any form of danger and/or distress that may arise from the investigation (Schacter et al., 2009). If both consequences cannot be prevented, then the participants must be cautioned about the effects before the ultimate decision of involvement is assented. Thirdly, the assembled data is to be accorded a high level of privacy for identity safeguard during and after the exercise. Fourth, the investigator is mandated to allow for research abandonment by the participant, even after the project commences. Lastly, upon the completion of the investigation, the researcher must relay the end results to the participants and accord a form of enlightenment on the inference of the results.

Question Two

            Positive reinforcement involves the inclusion of an encouraging element within a situation in a bid to accord a desired form of behavior; the approach therefore includes the utilization of incentives for imparting healthy behavior within an individual. Negative reinforcement on the other hand involves a converse relationship that deducts a depressing element in a given situation as an incentive towards proper behavior impartation (Schacter et al., 2009). To acquire a higher comprehension of both approaches, we will review two dissimilar situations in which both approaches were employed. The first incident involves the positive approach. Being a poor mathematics student, my parents in one instance decided to actively aid with an improvement of the grades and upon a fifteen-minute discussion where they revealed their objective, they decided to reward me with any item that I preferred with any notable progression. The promised rewards being largely left towards my definition acted as a source of aspiration and I therefore accorded higher concentration in the mathematics class and for harder topics, I employed coaching sessions from a student within our class.

After the first exam, I had managed to acquire an upward review on the final scores and my parents bought me what I desired. The fulfillment derived from the association inhibited any form of slackening that I would have resorted to and with my many wants, I always managed to upgrade my mathematics results due to the awards. The rewards in the situation act as the positive reinforcement element to accord a constructive behavior in the learning curriculum. The impartation of diligences in the mathematics subject was the target action. Although with time the prize element was eliminated, I had acquired a healthy outlook towards the subject that accorded an optimistic interest that shaped my future attitude towards mathematics. This in turn ensured that the performance level was maintained devoid of the awards. The second situation involves the negative approach. My mother had noted that during my development period, I was very careless with the placement of my school bag upon the completion of the assignments. The morning sessions always involved search sessions for a location of the bag and more often, I would be late for my school reporting.

To eliminate this problem, mother resorted to scolding sessions every time that the issue arose, as she knew that I hated being reprimanded. As the scolding sessions recurred in such situations, I begun taking careful note of the bag storage and this on the initial implementation day to my interest averted the scolding session. This was very interesting and upon the second and third responsible storages, mother’s reprimands were eliminated. Therefore, to avoid the undesired state, I learned to accord proper storage for the bag and learned to avoid the confrontation. In this instance, the scolding session is equates to the negative reinforcement with the proper storage of the bag in a bid to eliminate late reporting being the target behavior. Additionally, the experience accorded a higher level of behavior shaping in terms of responsibility towards various areas in my life that had always evidenced scolding sessions due to my disobedience. In a summative form therefore, the single experience had a broad constructive effect.

Ethical factors that should be noted with regard to the negative approach are largely based on the establishing operations (EOs) employed within the chosen techniques toward positive behavior observances. This is attributed to the fact that such elements are aversive in nature, and this tends to weaken the technique due to the harmful capabilities. Employing such an approach as a precursor for behavior modification is inhibited by the aversive incentive and thereby leading to an obstruction within the adoption process (Schacter et al., 2009). In instances where this is evidenced, detrimental consequences often result. For instance, mother’s choice of the scolding sessions may have led to the impartation of a bigger problem like low self-worth within my life if I had chosen to view the negative aspect of the approach employed. It may have actually checked the behavior pattern yet its long-term consequence would present a larger problem within the development period. It is therefore very essential to note that the approach does not accord a guaranteed technique towards behavior modification.

Concerning the positive approach, the ethical factors just like the preceding technique regard the EOs. This is related to the fact that, upon the withdrawal of the EO, the affected individual may resort to the unhealthy behavior for a second time due to the lack of the incentive (Schacter et al., 2009). For instance with regard to the earlier outlined incident, with the exclusion of the prizes within the mathematics performance, I may have chosen to dismal performance for an enforcement of the incentive approach once more. Lack of the incentive would have led to higher decadence that would be highly destructive within my schooling.

Question Three

            The behavioral approach accords modification of practices both the intrinsic and extrinsic elements of an individual. This theory however limits modification patterns to the learning process as evidenced by the Pavlov experiment that employed dogs within the research. This involved an instance in which the experimenter would sound a bell before serving a meal to the dogs. With the initial session, no form of behavior alteration was evidenced and the process was replicated severally on various occasions (Schacter et al., 2009). With time, the dogs began associating the bell chime to feeding time and prior to the presentation of food the animals would drool as a reflection of their expectancy. Additionally, when the bell was however sounded and the food element withheld from the dog, a replacement of the bell-food connection was noted as the dogs reverted to the former dissociation relation accorded to the latter forms of stimuli. This defines the extinction occurrence that argues that learning is often forgotten with lack of exercise and practice. The reinforcement and chastisement approaches are categorized as behavioral procedures in enforcing behavior modification in humans.

The difference in the approaches is accorded to the fact that reinforcement techniques involve the inclusion of incentives towards coercing individuals to the desired state whereas chastisement on the other hand comprises of deductive mechanisms (Schacter et al., 2009). This theory has offered a succinct comprehension of the psychology discipline by the fact that it discusses the role of the mind with regard to behavior formulation and modification. Psychology is viewed as a discipline that dwells on the understanding the relation between mentality and conduct. The dogs’ behavior alteration is accorded to the programmed mind state that the bell sound accorded for interpretive purposes. This is also true with the reinforcement approaches that position the mind into a constructive position that consequently leads to the necessitated positive alteration. The chastisement approach accords a congruent result as individuals are forced into the desired behavior through fear of the negative incentive associated with the punishment process.

From a subjective viewpoint, I have learnt that behavior alteration can be attained through the use of both fear and commend as incentives. The theory has a high level of credibility as the fear element can be seen within the classroom or jail setting with individuals coerced into the adoption of positive behavior as an aversion for the unwanted sensation of pain that is connected to castigation. In the other relationship, awards act as a desirable incentive towards behavior modification from personal accounts. Although I had been able to notice this manner of association in both approaches, I lacked the comprehension as to why the given relationships occurred in the specified manner. Learning the behavioral approach in the psychology discipline has therefore acted as a revelator to the link that I had never acquired in understanding the dynamics of the intellect and conduct. It has therefore aided me in the understanding of subject.

Question Four

            As the name evidences, anxiety disorders largely comprise of six distinct ailments that share a high level of similarity especially noted with the indicators. The principal indicator is the presence of an unrelenting level of apprehension in circumstances that do not accord the same reactions to other individuals. General indicators for anxiety disorder are categorized into two major groups. The emotional category comprises of signs like severe fright, difficulty in acquiring attentiveness in a given situation, presence of uptightness, a pessimistic outlook of all situations attributed to the expectation of a bad happening, short-temper, agitation, a void mind and a tendency to be on the outlook for a hazard (Schacter et al., 2009). The physical category comprises of racing pulse and heartbeat, sweating, abdominal pains, nausea, muscular cramps, hyperventilation, exhaustion, runny stomach, recurrent urination, headache and lack of sleep. Therefore, according this to the accorded context, I would first assess the presence of the principle indicator and at least five or more indicators from each of the two categories.

Having determined the occurrence of the disorder, the next stage would involve the assessment of specific indicators to ascertain the specific ailment involved in the situation. This is majorly for the purposes of identifying the ailment to the client and according the best management process since the techniques of treatment currently available are applied to all the accorded anxiety disorders. A combination of curative approaches would be best within the given context, with the first being the exposure treatment that focuses on controlling the fear aspect through behavior alterations. The procedure involves divulging the client into a restricted system that allows for the confrontation of the anxiety. The client is therefore taught through this behavior approach how to effectually handle, manage and eventually eradicate the fear (Schacter et al., 2009). However, since the identified approach is gradual in nature, it would be good to offer medications for the short-term handling of the anxiety before the client acquires the capability to handle the situation without any form of extrinsic involvement.

An assortment of antidepressant prescriptions are present and would be the best in the control of the symptoms. The duration of the drug treatment would however depend on the type of the ailment with the severe ailments necessitating longer duration and the less severe ones according a short duration. Note that, prescriptions will be employed for the short-term period alone until the long-term management of the anxiety is attained. The exposure process has duration of at least ten weeks (Schacter et al., 2009).














Schacter, D. L., Daniel, T. G., & Daniel, M. W. (2009). Psychology. New York, NY: Worth Publishers, Incorporated.

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