Signal Processing

Signal Processing

  1. 1.      MATLAB

MATLAB is an interactive program with high-level mathematical language used in computers to help the users in mathematical calculations. It is similar to the traditional programming language, FORTRAN or c++, but it is faster. Initially, it was designed for the purposes of solving matrix calculations but it has been modified further to solve integrals, differential equations numerically and plot a wide variety of two and three dimension graphs (Mathworks, 2011). The functions of MATLAB are signal and image processing, communications, control design, financial modeling and analysis, test and measurement, and computational biology. Additionally, it is used in drawing of two and three dimension graphs (Mathworks, 2011).

2.  L-R Binaural Directional Hearing Perception

Binaural directional hearing is the process where the ears are used to locate the source of the sound. In most cases, the use of binaural directional hearing is used to locate the sources of sound especially by the blind people (Shinn-Cunningham & Best, 2008). When the ears are trying to locate the sources of the sound, one ear usually hears more than the other does. This is because of the distance the sound travels from one ear to the other. Additionally, the length of the source to the ear matters a lot in relation to the magnitude of the sound. Therefore, the sound source is in the direction of the ear that hears the most noise.

3. L-R Balance

The L-R balance is mainly found in the music systems especially those that have large or produce a lot of sound. It is used to balance the sound coming from the speakers so that the sound can appear to be centered. This is where one of the ears hears the sound more than the other ear or the sound appears not to be balanced thus, coming from one side. For instance, when one is sitting in his or her own living room listening to the music, he or she might tend to hear the music as if it is coming from one direction only. This shows that the sound coming from the music system is not balanced. In such a case, the L-R balance is used to balance the sound so that it can be equal in the room. Because of this balance, both ears can now hear the same amount of sound.

4.  L-R Delay

The L-R delay can be found in the music systems or mixers. This is where the sound of one speaker is made to delay while the sound from the other speaker continues normally. For instance, when a disc jockey is playing his or her music, he or she might delay the sound of music coming from one speaker. This is for the purposes of creating the different musical effects that will attract the listeners. This will result to listeners hearing varied sound effects of the delayed music from that one speaker the disc jockey is playing. In this situation, the sound signals will appear different from the original sounds if they are played concurrently. Therefore, this can be described as the L-R delay.

The L-R delay can be found in the music systems or mixers. This is where the sound of one speaker is made to delay while the sound from the other speaker continues normally. For instance, when a disc jockey is playing his or her music, he or she might delay the sound of music coming from one speaker. This is for the purposes of creating the different musical effects that will attract the listeners. This will result to listeners hearing varied sound effects of the delayed music from that one speaker the disc jockey is playing. In this situation, the sound signals will appear different from the original sounds if they are played concurrently. Therefore, this can be described as the L-R delay.

 

5.  Filtering

Literary, filtering can be defined as the process of removing the unwanted noise to have clarity in the remaining sound. In this case, a device known as a filter is put in place to suppress the unwanted signals. This is usually done when the listeners do not want any unwanted signals to interfere with what they are listening. In this situation, the background noises and signals are removed and the users can now listen or work with the signals that they want to use. It is worth noting that there are instances where filtering cannot be applied like image processing.

6. The Head Related Transfer Theory that Includes Elevation and Azimuth Perception

            The head related transfer theory is the process whereby, the ears receive sound from a point in space. Head related transfer theory in relation to elevation and azimuth perception can be described as the location of the ear in space from the source of the sound (Algazi, Duda & Thompson, 2001). In this case, it can be translated as the degree from the ear to the source of the sound. In addition, the way the ear is located from the source of the sound affects the speed taken by the sound before it reaches the ear (Algazi, Duda & Thompson, 2001). Therefore, this can be described as the head related theory in relation to elevation and azimuth perception. For instance, in the diagram below, it is possible to see how location affects speed of the sound.

 

Source: Algazi, Duda & Thompson, 2001

Additionally, the diagram shows how the sound signals travel to the ear in relation to the shape of the face and the location of the ear.

 

 

 

References

Algazi, V. R., Duda. R. O & Thompson, D. M. (2001). The Cipic HRTF Database. UC Regents. Retrieved from http://interface.cipic.ucdavis.edu/sound/hrtf.html

Mathworks, (2011). Matlab. Mathworks. Retrieved from http://www.mathworks.com/products/matlab/description1.html

Shinn-Cunningham, B., & Best, V. (January 01, 2008). Selective Attention in Normal and Impaired Hearing. Trends in Amplification, 12 (4), 283-299.

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