Part 1- Cultural Diversity

            The Clarence Foundation is an international non-profit making organization, which is involved in collecting grants that are then dispersed to projects all over the world to help the needy people. Although the foundation is based in the US, it has numerous branches in other countries. By having branches in many countries, the organization has employees from all kinds of cultural backgrounds. The organization has experienced problems dealing with cultural barriers whereby employees and the people being served have different cultural viewpoints making it difficult to complete projects on time.

In the world we live in, people have been brought up differently and have different cultural backgrounds. It is regarded as morally upright to understand and accept other people’s cultural view. However, it happens that not all people accept the diversity in cultural point of views. At the work place, conflict commonly arises due to the cultural differences. One of the main reasons, why people find it difficult to accept other people’s cultural viewpoint is because the other people do not act in a way that is considered normal. In sociology, this is called deviance. According to Macionis, deviance is defined as “the violation of norms” (Macionis, 2009). People usually have a hard time accepting views from a person who does not act in a way that is considered normal. The concept of deviance was advanced by Emile Durkheim, a famous sociologist. Another reason why people do not accept other’s cultural point of view is collective behavior (Macionis, 2009). People may come together and develop some point of view that makes it difficult to cope with other people. People have formed movements that are against other people’s point of view. This is advanced by sociological theories including contagion, convergence and emergent-norm theory (Macionis, 2009).

In the context of a multinational organization, people are encouraged to appreciate cultural diversity. This has a major impact on the activities of the organization since it is easier to communicate among people with divergent views. In addition, when people embrace cultural diversity, it is easier to socialize and share ideas with other people making the organization more efficient.


Connerley, M. L., & Pedersen, P. (2005). Leadership in a diverse and multicultural environment: Developing awareness, knowledge, and skills. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Edgerton, R. B. (1976). Deviance, a cross-cultural perspective. Menlo Park, CA: Cummings Pub. Co.

Freilich, M. (1991). Deviance: Anthropological perspectives. New York, NY: Bergin & Garvey.

Harrison, J. R., & Carroll, G. R. (2006). Culture and demography in organizations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Kornblum, W., & Smith, C. D. (2008). Sociology in a changing world. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.

Lofland, J. (1991). Protest: Studies of collective behavior and social movements. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.

Macionis, J. J. (2009). Sociology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PrenticeHall

Rubington, E., & Weinberg, M. S. (1999). Deviance: The interactionist perspective. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Part 2-Violence against women

Violence against women is a sensitive issue that needs a careful evaluation while formulating a research methodology that is efficient. Some of the potential methods that could be used in the research include surveys, interviews and community discussions. Research on violence against women must be interactive whereby the victims should be involved in the research process. In addition, it is important for the research methodology to protect the victims in such a way that anonymity can be maintained if requested. The respondents giving information are usually in danger and the research should not make their situations worse by revealing their identity.  The most efficient way in which violence against women can be studied using interpretative and critical frameworks is by integrating surveys in the methodology of research. Surveys have been used by many researchers who wish to acquire relevant data regarding violence against women. In this way, researchers have the ability to collect data that can be interpreted effectively to show the state of their respondents. Surveys may be conducted after certain periods of time whereby the data collected gives a true picture of what is happening on the ground. Women affected by violence sometimes do not wish to give information regarding their experiences. However, researchers may have the ability to persuade them to give this information. On the other hand, interviews are also an effective way to collect the data needed for an interpretative and critical framework of research.

By using surveys, the researcher would be able to collect different kinds of information. For example, the data may focus on the age of the women who have been subjected to violence, and place of residence. This research is also likely to give information that would reveal some of the cultural beliefs that encourage violence against women. In addition, it would also get information that shows the frequency of violence against specific women focused on in the research.




Blumer, H., Shibutani, T., & EBSCO Publishing (Firm). (2004). Human nature and collective behavior: Papers in honor of Herbert Blumer. Englewood-Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall.

Dinitz, S., Dynes, R. R., & Clarke, A. C. (1975). Deviance: Studies in definition, management, and treatment. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.


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