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Summary - Accurate Essays



Chapter 7

The last ten years of the 18th century brought new challenges as far as the Americans politics was concerned. The federalist was divided into two groups, which were led by Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. In the 1788 elections, George Washington became the country’s first president and John Adams his vice. Thomas Jefferson headed the Department of state and Hamilton became the Secretary of Treasury. By 1971, ten out of the nineteen amendments of the constitution presented by James Madison had been approved and ratified. They are now known as the bill of rights.

Hamilton’s plans to improve national authority were categorized into three: public interest, national bank and manufacturing in January and December of 1790, and in December 1791 respectively. However, Madison joined with Jefferson to come against Hamilton’s initiatives. Despite all these, the president put a sign on the legislation. Hamilton’s plans worked tremendously and the Americans were able to acquire great wealth. The European War of 1793 was an advantage to the American merchants. The ship builders and merchants were greatly needed by the sail makers and shipwrights in 1808. Although the European struggle benefited the Americans too, they did not come into a consensus about its ideologies.

A British journalist known as William Cobbert did not believe in the proposition, which implied that the one who was an enemy of the French revolution, could not be a firm republican. Since he was a strong federalist, he used widely read articles to attack these opponents. The first party system came into existence when the republicans and the Federalists came into existence. The Federalist Party was supported by the majority of the merchants, urban artisans and creditors because of its policies. The constitution crisis was between the years 1798-1800. The Federalist Party experienced a new phase in the war of 1812.

Chapter 8

Americans depended on government land banks before the banking systems were introduced. However, it took time before an effective and efficient system was put in place. The water was the fastest means of transport then. However, many goods were not near these water bodies. The turnpike was constructed, which connected many inland market places. As developed continued, there was an attempt to bring political and social equality especially on the white men’s side. However, the women were left out in this liberation. Male legislators put explicit race gender laws when the free blacks and the women asked for equal voting rights.

John Adams lamentation of 1776 about political power spreading to where it was not meant to spread encouraged many women to seek for equal political rights. As time went by, the young men and women also got their freedom to choose the spouses they wanted to get married to. However, if one became disappointed by their choice of partner, he/she could little after marriage. This is because divorce was only granted when there was adultery, neglect or abandonment. This was before 1800. Women spent their years having and nurturing the children.

The first-born son inherited his father’s wealth if he died without a will. However, this was later revised as the law stated that the wealth be divided equally among all children. Most foreigners felt that American children were raised too independently and were therefore disrespectful. The struggle for independence among the whites raised the urge to have the slaves freed. The Missouri crisis that took place between 1819 and 1821 involved a major debate of the release of the slaves. The protestant Christianity and the second great awakening continued to play a role in the liberalization of the Americans. In this time, America became a full Christian country. The slaves were finally freed and the women were slowly given equal rights as the men. However, equal rights for the blacks came much later.

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