Women Offenders and Incarceration
Braithwaite, R. & Arriola K. (2003). Male Prisoners and HIV Prevention: A Call for Action Ignored. Am J Public Health.
In this book, the authors deal with the issue of HIV/AIDS that is commonly affecting the inmates in most of the US prisons. The disease due to risky behaviors they were involved in before their imprisonment relentlessly affects these individuals. Researchers and medical practitioners are advocating for the significance of extending HIV prevention services to individuals found in the United States prisons. Despite the fact that practitioners and researchers are working hard towards HIV/AIDS prevention in these prisons, their call has not been put into consideration. This article gives a summary on the reasons as to why the researcher’s and the practitioner’s approvals have been overlooked. The authors have also developed inventive HIV prevention programs that are presently put into practice in prisons and offers proposals for supporting HIV prevention services.
Edwards, T. (2000). Southern Legislative Conference (SLC) Special Series Report, Female
Offenders: Special Needs and Southern State Challenges. Southern Legislative Conference of the Council of State Governments, Atlanta, GA.
The Southern Legislative Conference Special Report looks into the growth in women’s population in prisons both in the United States of America and in the Southern States. The report includes a review on female prisoners. It also includes a review on how the Southern State correction department approaches the satisfaction of prisoner’s requirements. They include needs in the areas of accommodation, medical services, schooling and occupational training, prison industry, parenthood and employment issues.
Jordan, B., Schlenger, W., Fairbank, J., & Caddell, J. (1996). Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders Among Incarcerated Women, II: Convicted Felons entering Prison. Arch Gen Psychiatry; 53:513-519.
In the article, the authors confirm that there are unprejudiced approximations of the number of psychiatric turmoil among women in prisons. Accessible data have suggested that psychiatric disorders are commonly found among women who are detainees. In this article, a study was carried out to establish the rates, risk issues and outcomes of certain psychiatric disorders found among women prisoners. After carrying out the study, it was discovered that female prisoners were found to have high rates of drug and alcohol abuse as compared to women found in communities leading normal lives. The rate of mental illnesses was higher among whites as compared to black American women. In this book, it has been illustrated that high rates of drug abuse, psychiatric disorder and psychological anguish coupled with disclosure to distressing occurrences indicate that women in prison require special treatment on drug abuse and mental illnesses.
Lamb, H. & Weinberger, L. (2001). Persons with Severe Mental Illness in Jails and Prisons: A Review. New Dir Ment Health Serv.; 90:29-49.
Scientific studies illustrate that six to fifteen percent of individuals in prisons suffer relentless mental illnesses. Inmates with chronicle mental illnesses suffer severe illness and poor functioning of the brain. It is reported that most of the mentally ill individuals are found in prisons as opposed to individuals leading their normal lives freely in the society. This is because there is insufficient support for the mentally ill persons and negative outlook of the police officers and the entire society. It is therefore suggested that proper training of police officers on mental health, thorough screening of the external prisoners, taking mentally ill inmates who have committed minor crimes to mental hospitals and confident case management of individuals suffering from the disease should be included in prisons.
Mays, G., Winfrees, L, Jr. (2009). Essentials of Corrections. Belmont, CA; 327-401.
This book includes a comprehensive coverage of the significant fundamentals of the United States corrections system. It includes coverage of the history of corrections, the imperative speculations relating to causes of crime, programs and advances that are presently flourishing and substitutes to imprisonment. The practical approach of the book provides students with information on careers in corrections and assists them in understanding the role played by corrections in the society.
Political Research Associates. (2005). How the Criminal Justice System is Anti-Women; 2-3.
In this article, the Political Research Institute came up with the reasons as to why the criminal justice system does not favor women. They found out that women accounted for 6.9% of all inmates found in the US prisons. The number of women in these women increased at a faster rate compared to men by mid 2003. In addition, it was discovered that women who were imprisoned were jailed for passive or drug criminal offences. The criminal justice system facades harm to women in form of sexual abuse, medical disregard, they are denied of their reproductive rights and challenges to motherhood. In this article, it has been made clear that female inmates encounter so many problems in prisons compared to problems that men face in the jail. This is because women are more vulnerable to the police officers where they at times rape them. Women are also more vulnerable to diseases where they are not given proper medical assistance.
Research and Advocacy for Reform. (2007).Women in the Criminal Justice System. Retrieved from: www.sentencingproject.org.
In this website, the Research and Advocacy for Reform organization developed a sentencing project to advance a more effectual and humanitarian alternatives to imprisonment of criminal lawbreakers. The project has formed prominent reports on inequalities in the United States punitive system. The sentencing project has also created articles on consequences of criminal charges as well as the effects of guilty judgment or prosecution that are not incorporated in the sentence.
Richie, B. (2001). Challenges Incarcerated Women Face as they Return to their Communities: Findings from Life History Interviews. Crime and Delinquency; 47:368-389.
This article utilizes the qualitative research project domino effect to illustrate the problems that women inmates face after going back to their homes from prison. The specific problems faced by these individuals are comprehensively discussed in this article focusing on gender and cultural needs that were formerly faced by imprisoned women from poor backgrounds after leaving the prison. After leaving prison, women encounter difficult situations such as negligence by relatives, they are also affected economically where they are not able to satisfy their basic needs and they may be looked down upon by other members of the society. The article comprehends the discussion by giving a wider perspective that influences women’s self-reliance and the necessity for locality development proposals, public policy modification and social changes.
Taylor, S. (2001). The Health Status of Black Women. In: Braithwaite RL, Taylor S, eds. Health Issues in the Black Community. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Jossey-Bass; 44-61.
The authors of Health Issues in the Black Community have positioned a clear perception on the problems and prospects they face in working towards goal achievement of health equity in the United States of America. Getting rid of health inequality among individuals should be the main objective of a nation’s health policy. This article contributes so much in a conversation centered on problems faced by the black community. This book elucidates expansively health conditions affecting black Americans and the health discrepancies both within the black community and between racial and ethnic groups. It provides medical practitioners, consumers, researchers and policymakers with critical information on the importance of altering social determinants of health and creates equal treatment for all Americans.
Teplin, L., Abram, K., & McClelland, G. (1996). Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders among Incarcerated Women, I: Pretrial Jail Detainees. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 53:505-512.
In this article, the authors confirm that there is diminutive epidemiologic information on psychiatric disarrays among women prisoners. Getting precise data on female detainees are significant because of their increasing numbers and their special treatment requirements. In finding out the accurate data of the number of women prisoners in the US prisons, a research was carried out. It was founded that eighty percent of the inmates have had one or more lifetime disorders and seventy percent of the inmates were symptomatic before the study was completed. The common turmoil among the inmates included drug abuse, alcoholism and post-traumatic stress disorder. The rates were highest among the Hispanic whites and among the detainees who hade served the prisons for longer periods. Rates for all mental disorders were higher than in the entire population in the United States except for schizophrenia. It was concluded that the outcome of the study suggested considerable psychiatric morbidity among female inmates in the United States of Americas prisons.
Braithwaite, R., & Arriola, K. (2003). Male Prisoners and HIV Prevention: A Call for Action Ignored. Am J Public Health.
Edwards, T. (2000). Female Offenders: Special Needs and Southern State Challenges. Southern Legislative Conference of the Council of State Governments, Atlanta, GA. Southern Legislative Conference (SLC) Special Series Report.
Jordan, B., Schlenger, W., Fairbank, J., & Caddell, J. (1996). Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders among Incarcerated Women, II: Convicted Felons Entering Prison. Arch Gen Psychiatry.
Lamb, H. & Weinberger, L. (2001). Persons with Severe Mental Illness in Jails and Prisons: A Review. New Dir Ment Health Serv.
Mays, G., Winfrees, L, Jr. (2009). Essentials of Corrections. Belmont, CA. 327-401.
Political Research Associates. (2005). How the Criminal Justice System is Anti-Women.
Research and Advocacy for Reform. (2007). Women in the Criminal Justice System. Retrieved from www.sentencingproject.org
Richie, B. (2001). Challenges Incarcerated Women Face as they Return to their Communities: Findings from Life History Interviews. Crime and Delinquency.
Taylor, S. (2001). The Health Status of Black Women. In: Braithwaite RL, Taylor S, eds. Health Issues in the Black Community. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Jossey-Bass.
Teplin, L., Abram, K., & McClelland, G. (1996). Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders among Incarcerated Women, I: Pretrial Jail Detainees. Arch Gen Psychiatry.